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Hydraulic actuators: cylinders

Cylinder types:
Single acting: Double acting piston:
work can be done only in one direction Work is done in both
directions
Plunger

Piston rod on both sides


Piston

Tandem

Telescopic Fast moving Telescopic Fast moving


Hydraulic cylinders
Hydraulic cylinder
Hidraulikus
munkahengerek
Rgztplcs kivitel 1.
Rgztplcs hidraulika henger, a hengerfejen tallhat karims
rgztssel
Hydraulic cylinders
Hydraulic cylinder Hidraulikus munkahengerek
Hengeres kivitel 1.

Hengeres ptsi mddal kszlt hidraulika henger


Hydraulic cylinders
Properties:
The cylinders have to be good quality steel with close tolerances.
There have to be good sealing both at the piston rod and at the
cylinder.
With time dirt may come in and damage the surfaces. This has to be
possibly reduced.
In this case, the leakage will increase all the time.
Hydraulic cylinders
Calculation of cylinders

Fcmax FLmax FF F1 FCmax FLmax FF

maximum load friction forces inertial forces


slow motion, can
be often neglected

Outward:
FC 0 A1 p1 A2 p2 A1 A2
p2 vB
Backward:
FCB A2 p2 A1 p1
p1
v0

Q Q Q
v0 vB
A1 A2
Hydraulic cylinders
Calculation of cylinders
1. Stick-slip
Ff
2. Transition 1 2 3
3. Normal behaviour
Hydraulic cylinders should be possibly
operated in the 3rd region for smooth
operation.
v
If the cylinder is new, the leakage losses are
negligibly small so that:
v FL FL
c = mech c
p1Q1 p2Q2 p1 A1 p2 A2
c

outwards cmax 0,85 0,92


inward
s at higher pressures

p
Hydraulic cylinders
Checking for buckling

Maximum permissible force:


2
1
Fmax L E I1 n: safety factor: 1-3,5
n lk
lk: buckling length
d 4
I1: moment of inertia of the piston rod
64
E: elasticity modulus of the rod material
Hydraulic cylinders
Cushioning of cylinders:
A hard impact of the piston at the end surfaces has to be inhibited
kinetic energy has to be absorbed.
This is done by increasing the hydraulic resistance at the end of
the stroke.
Rotary hydraulic actuators
Swivel vane rotary actuator:
Parallel
piston rotary
Limited angle in both directions actuator
Prhuzamd
ugattys
Maximum angle always smaller than 360 lenghajt
s

The same torque in both directions

Limited angle rotary Limited angle rotary


actuator actuator

Piston rotary actuator:


With rack and gear coupling
Here maximum angle may be larger than 360
Mindkt irnyban
azonosan mkd
Forgdugattys hengerrel s
lenghajts fogaslces
??? menettel ??? meghajtssal
mkdtetett mkdtetett
meghajtcsapp toldugattys
al lenghajts
Big pictures
End of normal presentation
Beginning of big pictures
Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: plunger

smaller force, better efficiency, axial support is necessary


but cylinder does not have to be so good quality

Without inner buffer With inner buffer (pilot piston)


Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: piston, single acting, pressing-cylinder

Spring

inside outside
Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: piston, single acting, puller

Spring

inside outside
Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: piston, double acting

Velocity is different
Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: piston, double acting
Piston rod on both side

Velocity is the same in both directions


Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: piston, double acting
Piston rod on both side

Velocity is different in the two directions depending


on cross section ratio of the rods
Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: double acting piston, tandem
Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: single acting, fast moving
Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: double acting, fast moving
Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: telescopic, single acting

Large working paths


or limited space
Hydraulic cylinders
Cylinder types: telescopic, double acting

Large working paths


or limited space
Hydraulic cylinders
Checking for buckling:
Eulers 1. Case 2. Case 3. Case 4. Case
cases One end free
One end fixed
Two ends pivoted
and guided
One end guided and
pivoted, other end
Two ends fixed and
guided
Or trunnion at end fixed

Picture

Free buckling
length
mounting style mounting style mounting style mounting style
Manner of
end fixing

Note
Hydraulic cylinders
Cushioning of cylinders:

1. Piston
2. Cushion nose
3. Cylinder cap
4. Stroke volume
5. Cushion orifice
6. Throttle
7. Cushion adjustment screw
8. Mother
9. Non-return valve
10. Gas valve
Rotary hydraulic actuators
Parallel piston rotary
actuator
Rotary hydraulic actuators
???
Rotary hydraulic actuators
Rack-and-pinion piston-type rotary actuator:
Rotary hydraulic actuators
Limited angle rotary actuator:
Rotary hydraulic actuators
Limited angle rotary actuator:
Rotary hydraulic actuators
Helix actuator: