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4 Job Analysis and the

Talent Management
Process

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Learning Objectives

1. Define talent management and explain


why it is important.
2. Discuss the process of job analysis,
including why it is4-important.
3. Explain how to use at least three
methods of collecting job analysis
information, including interviews,
questionnaires, and observation.

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Learning Objectives

4. Explain how you would write a


job description.
5. Explain how to write a job
specification. 4-
6. Explain competency-based job
analysis, including what it means
and how its done in practice.

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Define talent management
and explain why it is
important.
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The Talent Management
Process
What Is Talent Management?
o Tasks
o Goal-directed
o Uses the same4-profile
o Segments and manages
employees
o Integrates/coordinates all talent
management functions

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TASKS

1. Treats talent management activities such as


recruiting and training as interrelated. For
example, having employees with the right skills
depends as much on recruiting, training, and
compensation as on applicant testing.

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GOAL-DIRECTED

2. Makes sure all talent management decisions


(such as staffing, training, and pay) are goal
directed. In other words, ask, "What recruiting,
testing, training, or pay action should I take to
produce the employee competencies we
need to achieve our strategic goals?

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Uses the same profile
3. Consistently uses the same "profile of
required human skills, knowledge, and
behaviors ("competencies") for formulating a job's
recruitment plans as for making selection, training,
appraisal, and compensation decisions for it. For
example, if "Design complex software
application's Is one required software engineer
skill, then ask interview questions to assess the
candidate on this skill; train the new employee to
improve this skill; and then appraise and
compensate the person based on his or her skill
proficiency.
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Segments and manages employees

4. Actively segments and manages employees.


For example, Accenture recommends identifying
the firm's "mission critical employees, and then
managing their development and rewards
separately from the firm's other employees.

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Integrates/coordinates all talent
management functions
5. Actively coordinates or integrates the
ongoing talent management functions such
as recruiting and training. For example, HR
managers need to make sure they are using the
same skills profile to recruit as to select, train,
and appraise for a particular job, or use special
talent management software to do so.

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Review

Thought of as
linear process
Definition
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Managing talent
effectively

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Discuss the process of
job analysis, including
why it is important.
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THE NATURE OF JOB ANALYSIS

Job analysis
The procedure for determining the duties and skill
requirements of a job and the kind of person who should
be hired for it.
Job description
A list of a jobs duties, responsibilities, reporting
relationships, working conditions, and supervisory
responsibilitiesone product of a job analysis.
Job specifications
A list of a jobs human requirements, that is, the
requisite education, skills, personality, and so on
another product of a job analysis.

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The Basics of Job Analysis
Work activities
Behaviors
Machines, tools,
equipment, and
work aids
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Performance
standards
Job context
Human
requirements

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Uses of Job Analysis
Information
Recruitment and
selection
EEO compliance
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Performance
appraisal
Compensation
Training

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STEPS IN JOB ANALYSIS

Step 1: Decide how youll use the


information.
Step 2: Review relevant background
information.
Step 3: Select representative positions.
Step 4: Actually analyze the job.
Step 5: Verify the job analysis information.
Step 6: Develop a job description and job
specification.

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CHARTING THE ORGANIZATION

Organization chart
A chart that shows the organizationwide distribution of
work, with titles of each position and interconnecting
lines that show who reports to and communicates to
whom.
Process chart
A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and
outputs from a particular job.

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IMPROVING PEFORMANCE:
HR as a Profit Center
Boosting Productivity Through
Work Redesign
o Workflow analysis prompted
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several performance-boosting
redesigns
o Firm reduced from four to one
the number of people opening
mail
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PROCESS CHART FOR ANALYZING A JOBS
WORKFLOW

Figure 42
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Job Analysis Guidelines

A joint effort
Clarity of questions
and process 4-

Different job analysis


methods

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Review

The basics of job analysis


Uses of job analysis information
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Conducting a job analysis
Job analysis guidelines

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Explain how to use at least three
methods of collecting job analysis
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information, including interviews,
questionnaires, and observation.

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Methods for Collecting Job Analysis
Information
Interviews
Questionnaires JAQ FORM_rev 100809 a.pdf

Observation
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Diary/logs
Quantitative
techniques
Internet-based
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Collecting Job Analysis
Information Interviews

The Interview
o Typical questions
o Structured interviews
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o Pros and cons
o Interviewing guidelines

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METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION: THE
INTERVIEW

Information sources
Individual employees
Groups of employees
Supervisors with
knowledge of the job Interview formats
Advantages Structured
Quick, direct way to (Checklist)
find overlooked Unstructured
information.
Disadvantages
Distorted
information
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INTERVIEW GUIDELINES

The job analyst and supervisor should work together


to identify the workers who know the job best.
Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee.
Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists
open-ended questions and provides space for
answers.
Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of
importance and frequency of occurrence.
After completing the interview, review and verify the
data.

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METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION:
QUESTIONNAIRES

Information source
Advantages
Have employees fill
Quick and efficient
out questionnaires to
way to gather
describe their job-
information from
related duties and
large numbers of
responsibilities.
employees
Questionnaire
Disadvantages
formats
Expense and time
Structured checklists
consumed in
Opened-ended preparing and
questions testing the
questionnaire
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Questionnaires also may be structured or unstructured,
depending on the situation and job under review.

Observation, while extremely useful is very time-consuming in


that one individual will be needed to observe the worker for
extended periods of time. In addition, the observer may miss
some key job activities if they are not performed regularly.

Diaries and logs require the worker to make entries into his or her
journal at regular times.
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Quantitative techniques include the Position Analysis
Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Department of Labor (DOL)
technique.

Internet-based analysis allows the HR department to send


questionnaires to geographically disbursed employees and
receive information in a timely manner. This procedure also
allows electronic or voice follow-up.

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METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION:
OBSERVATION

Information source Advantages


Observing and Provides first-hand
noting the physical information
activities of Reduces distortion of
employees as they information
go about their jobs. Disadvantages
Time consuming
Difficulty in
capturing entire job
cycle
Of little use if job
involves a high level
of mental activity.
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METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION:
PARTICIPANT DIARY/LOGS

Information source Advantages


Workers keep a Produces a more
chronological diary/ complete picture of
log of what they do the job
and the time spent Employee
in each activity. participation
Disadvantages
Distortion of
information
Depends upon
employees to
accurately recall
their activities
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QUANTITATIVE JOB ANALYSIS
TECHNIQUES
The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data
concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs.
The Department of Labor (DOL) procedure
A standardized method by which different jobs can be
quantitatively rated, classified, and compared.
Functional job analysis
Takes into account the extent to which instructions,
reasoning, judgment, and mathematical and verbal
ability are necessary for performing job tasks.

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SAMPLE
REPORT BASED
ON
DEPARTMENT
OF LABOR JOB
ANALYSIS
TECHNIQUE

Figure 46
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Review
Interviews
Questionnaires
Observation
Diary/logs 4-

Quantitative
techniques
Internet-based

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Explain how you
would write a job
description.
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Writing Job Descriptions

Job identification
Job summary
Relationships
Responsibilities and 4-
duties
o Authority
Performance standards &
working conditions
Job specifications

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SAMPLE JOB
DESCRIPTIO
N, PEARSON
EDUCATION

Source: Courtesy of HR
Department, Pearson Education.

Figure 47a
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SAMPLE JOB
DESCRIPTIO
N, PEARSON
EDUCATION

Source: Courtesy of HR
Department, Pearson
Education.
Figure 47b
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MARKETING MANAGER DESCRIPTION
FROM
STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION

20. 11-2021 Marketing Managers


Abstract: 11-2021 Marketing Managers. Determine the
demand for products and services offered by a firm and Its
competitors and identify potential customers. Develop
pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firms
profits or share of the market while ensuring the firms
customers are satisfied.

Source: www.bis.gov, accessed November 13, 2003.


Figure 48
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IMPROVING PERFORMANCE:
HR Tools for Line Managers and
Entrepreneurs
O*NET
o The U.S. Department of Labors online
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occupational information network
o O*NET lists the specific duties
associated with numerous
occupations

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THE JOB DESCRIPTION

Job identification
Job title: name of job
FLSA status section: Exempt or nonexempt
Preparation date: when the description was written
Prepared by: who wrote the description
Job summary
Describes the general nature of the job
Lists the major functions or activities

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THE JOB DESCRIPTION (CONTD)

Relationships (chain of command)


Reports to: employees immediate supervisor
Supervises: employees that the job incumbent directly
supervises
Works with: others with whom the job holder will be
expected to work and come into contact with internally.
Outside the company: others with whom the job holder is
expected to work and come into contact with externally.

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THE JOB DESCRIPTION (CONTD)

Responsibilities and duties


A listing of the jobs major responsibilities and duties
(essential functions)
Defines limits of jobholders decision-making authority,
direct supervision, and budgetary limitations.
Standard Occupational Classification
Classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups of jobs
which are subdivided into 96 minor groups of jobs and
detailed occupations.

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THE JOB DESCRIPTION (CONTD)
Standards of performance and
working conditions
Lists the standards the employee is
expected to achieve under each of
the job descriptions main duties
and responsibilities.

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Review
Job descriptions
o Identifying the job,
summary, relationships
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o Responsibilities, duties,
standards
Specifications

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Explain how to write a
job specification.
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Write a job specification.
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WRITING JOB SPECIFICATIONS

Specifications for trained personnel


Focus on traits like length of previous service, quality of
relevant training, and previous job performance.
Specifications for untrained personnel
Focus on physical traits, personality, interests, or sensory
skills that imply some potential for performing or for
being trained to do the job.

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WRITING JOB SPECIFICATIONS (CONTD)

Specifications Based on Judgment


Self-created judgments (common sense)
List of competencies in Web-based job descriptions (e.g.,
www.jobdescription.com)
O*NET online
Standard Occupational Classification
Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis
Attempts to determine statistically the relationship
between a predictor or human trait and an indicator or
criterion of job effectiveness.

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Writing job specifications

Trained vs. untrained


Judgment
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Statistical analysis
Task statements

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THE SKILLS MATRIX FOR ONE JOB AT BP

ght blue boxes indicate the minimum level of skill required for the job.

Figure 412
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Explain competency-based job
analysis, including what it means
and how its done in practice.
4-

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JOB ANALYSIS IN A JOBLESS WORLD

Job
Generally defined as a set of closely related activities
carried out for pay.

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Profiles in Talent Management
Competencies and
competency-based job
analysis
How to write competencies-
4-
based job descriptions

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FROM SPECIALIZED TO ENLARGED JOBS

Job enlargement
Assigning workers additional same level activities, thus
increasing the number of activities they perform.
Job enrichment
Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the
opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of
responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.

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FROM SPECIALIZED TO ENLARGED JOBS (CONTD)

Job rotation
Moving a trainee from department to department to
broaden his or her experience and identify strong and
weak points to prepare the person for an enhanced
role with the company
Systematically moving workers from one job to
another to enhance work team performance.

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WHY MANAGERS ARE DEJOBBING THEIR COMPANIES

Dejobbing External factors


Broadening the leading to dejobbing.
responsibilities of Rapid product and
the companys jobs technological change
Encouraging Global competition
employee initiative. Deregulation,
Internal factors Political instability,
leading to dejobbing Demographic
Flatter organizations changes
Work teams Rise of a service
economy.

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COMPETENCY-BASED JOB ANALYSIS

Competencies
Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable
performance of a job.
Competency-based job analysis
Describing a job in terms of the measurable, observable,
behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or
behaviors) an employee must exhibit to do a job well.

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PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

Performance management
Managing all elements of the organizational process that
affect how well employees perform.
Types of competencies
General competencies
reading, writing, and mathematical reasoning.
Leadership competencies
leadership, strategic thinking, and teaching others.
Technical competencies
specific technical competencies required for specific types of
jobs and/or occupations.

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IMPROVING PERFORMANCE:
HR Practices Around the Globe
Daimler Alabama emphasizes
o Just-in-time inventory
o Work teams 4-

o Continuous improvement
Stressing competencies rather than duties

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