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Skeleton of wood, steel or

reinforced concrete.

man: Fachwerk) is the method of
Timber framingcreating framed structures of heavy
timber jointed together with pegged
Balloon frame mortise and tenon joints.
Platform frame light-frame construction

Structure supported mainly by a skeleton, or frame, of wood, steel, or reinforced

concrete rather than by load-bearing walls. Rigid frames have fixed joints that
enable the frames to resist lateral forces; other frames require diagonal bracing or
shear walls and diaphragms for lateral stability. Heavy timber framing was the most
common type of construction in East Asia and northern Europe from prehistoric
times to the mid-19th century. It was supplanted by the balloon frame and the
platform frame ( light-frame construction). Steel's strength, when used in steel


Plinth beam




The flat ceiling of a story is called a 'Slab'.

The peripheral horizontal members supporting the slab are called
The beams at ground level or plinth level (the lowermost habitable level)
are called 'Plinth Beams'.
The vertical members supporting the beams are called 'Columns'.
The system below ground transferring the entire load of the structure to
the soil is called 'Foundation'.
A slab or a beam supported only on one side and projecting horizontally
on the other side is called a 'Cantilever' slab or beam e.g. balconies,
Slabs + beams + columns + foundation = unit.


Slab beams columns foundation soil


Types of load:

gravity dead load

An RCC Framed Structure is an assembly of slabs, beams, columns and foundation connected to one another so that it behaves as one
Lateral wind and seismic load
unit. It is a methodology, which enables the construction of tall buildings and building with stilts. Majority of urban structures and
multistoried buildings are built as RCC framed structures. In an RCC framed structure, the load is transferred from a slab to the beams
then to the columns and further to lower columns and finally to the foundation which in turn transfers it to the soil. The walls in such
structures are constructed after the frame is ready and are not meant to carry any load. As against this, in a load bearing structure, the
loads are directly transferred to the soil through the walls, which are capable of carrying them.
There are basically two types of loads which a structure must support or resist.
Gravity loads: These loads act vertically downward such as the Dead Load (the weight of the structure itself along with the walls,
overhead water tanks, immovable furniture etc) and Live Load (the weight of inhabitants or users, movable furniture etc)
Lateral loads: These loads act horizontally on the structure such as wind load and seismic (earthquake) load. These may act in any
direction depending on the incidence of wind or earthquake.

Steel frame

Wood frame

Reinforced concrete


Highest strength-to-weight
High risk environments subject to rot,
corrosion, high humidity
Quick Construction
Fewer Skills Required
Not Susceptible to termites
Substantially more economical.
High Levels of Building accuracy
Improved thermal and acoustic properties
Minimal wastage
Low weight yielding high strength
The advent
No Chasing of light steel frame building in South Africa is one of the most exciting developments in recent
for services
times in the steel and building industries. While this method of building has been used in most leading
countries such as the US, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand for decades, it has only recently been
introduced and accepted in South Africa. It offers quality, cost and energy efficiency, as well as speed of
erection for both residential and commercial buildings.
Some of the most prestigious and sought after real estate in the world has been built using light steel frame
construction in areas such as the Gold Coast of Australia and Hawaii where coastal conditions are extreme.
The steel-framing concept has proven itself over half a century and is currently the fastest growing building
technique in the world.
as having the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any other building material and therefore our steel
structures are ideal for high risk environments subject to rot, corrosion, high humidity, etc. With steel being
lighter than wood, termite proof, and basically fireproof, steel structures are the way of the future. steel is
proven to be substantially more economical.


Easy to acquire, transport and work

It is lighter and inexpensive than other



It isnt fire-water resistant

It can be attacked by termites.





Shear wall


Concrete frames impart greater
rigidity and continuity; various
advancements, such as the
introduction of the shear wall and
slipforming, have made concrete a
serious competitor with steel in high-
rise structures.