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Original Title: 06AP Physics C - Kinematics

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06AP Physics C - Kinematics

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AP Physics C

Defining the important

Kinematics is a way of describing the motion of objects

variables

without describing the causes. You can describe an

objects motion:

In words Mathematically Pictorially Graphically

No matter HOW we describe the motion, there are several KEY VARIABLES

that we use.

Symbol Variable Units

t Time s

a Acceleration m/s/s

x or y Displacement m

vo Initial velocity m/s

v Final velocity m/s

g or ag Acceleration due to m/s/s

gravity

The 3 Kinematic equations

kinematic equations

v vo at

than can be used to

x xo vot 1 at 2

describe the motion in 2

DETAIL. All are used

when the acceleration v vo 2a( x xo )

2 2

is CONSTANT.

Kinematic #1

v v vo

a v vo at

t t

v vo at

Kinematic #1

Example: A boat moves slowly out of a marina (so as to not

leave a wake) with a speed of 1.50 m/s. As soon as it

passes the breakwater, leaving the marina, it throttles up

and accelerates at 2.40 m/s/s.

a) How fast is the boat moving after accelerating for 5 seconds?

What do I What do I

know? want? v vo at

vo= 1.50 m/s v=?

v (1.50) (2.40)(5)

a = 2.40 m/s/s

v 13.5 m/s

t=5s

Kinematic #2

x xo vox t 1 at 2

2

b) How far did the boat travel during that time?

x xo vox t 1 at 2

2

1

x 0 (1.5)(5) (2.40)(5 )

2

2

x 37.5 m

Does all this make sense?

13.5 m/s

A bh A (5)(1.5)

A 7.50 m

1 1

A bh (5)(12)

A bh A (5)(1.5) 2 2

A 7.50 m

A 30 m

1.5

m/s

Interesting to Note

x xo vox t 1 at 2

2

x xo vox t 1 att

A = HB 2

x xo vox t 1 vt

2

dont forget to ADD in the initial A=1/2HB

position of the object.

Kinematic #3

v v 2a ( x xo )

2 2

o

Example: You are driving through town at 12 m/s when suddenly a ball rolls

out in front of your car. You apply the brakes and begin decelerating at

3.5 m/s/s.

How far do you travel before coming to a complete stop?

What do I What do I

know? want? v 2 vo2 2a ( x xo )

vo= 12 m/s x=? 0 12 2 2(3.5)( x 0)

a = -3.5 m/s/s 144 7 x

V = 0 m/s

x 20.57 m

Common Problems Students

Have

I dont know which equation to choose!!!

x

v vo at

v

x xo vox t 1 at 2

2

t

v v 2a ( x xo )

2 2

o

Kinematics for the VERTICAL

Direction

All 3 kinematics can be used to analyze one

dimensional motion in either the X direction OR the

y direction.

v vo at v y voy gt

x xo vox t 1 at y yo voy t

2 1 gt 2

2 2

v vox 2a ( x xo ) v y voy 2 g ( y yo )

2 2 2 2

g or ag The Acceleration due

toin agravity

The acceleration due to gravity is a special constant that exists

VACUUM, meaning without air resistance. If an object is

in FREE FALL, gravity will CHANGE an objects velocity by 9.8

m/s every second.

g a g 9.8 m / s 2

ALWAYS ACTS DOWNWARD

IS ALWAYS CONSTANT near the

surface of Earth

Examples

A stone is dropped at rest from the top of a cliff. It is

observed to hit the ground 5.78 s later. How high

is the cliff?

What do I What do I Which variable is NOT given and

know? want? NOT asked for?

Final Velocity!

v = 0 m/s

oy y=?

g = -9.8 m/s2 y yo voy t 1 gt 2

2

yo=0 m

y (0)(5.78) 4.9(5.78) 2

t = 5.78 s

y -163.7 m

H =163.7m

Examples

A pitcher throws a fastball with a velocity of 43.5 m/s. It is

determined that during the windup and delivery the ball covers a

displacement of 2.5 meters. This is from the point behind the

body when the ball is at rest to the point of release. Calculate the

acceleration during his throwing motion.

know? want? NOT asked for?

TIME

vo= 0 m/s a=?

v v 2a ( x xo )

2 2

o

x = 2.5 m

v = 43.5 m/s 43.5 0 2a(2.5 0)

2 2

a 378.5 m/s/s

Examples

How long does it take a car at rest to cross a 35.0 m

intersection after the light turns green, if the acceleration

of the car is a constant 2.00 m/s/s?

know? want? NOT asked for?

Final Velocity

vo= 0 m/s t=?

x = 35 m x xo vox t 1 at 2

2

a = 2.00 m/s/s

35 0 (0) 1 (2)t 2

2

t 5.92 s

Examples

A car accelerates from 12.5 m/s to 25 m/s in 6.0

seconds. What was the acceleration?

What do I What do I Which variable is NOT given and

know? want? NOT asked for?

v = 25 m/s

t = 6s

v vo at

25 12.5 a (6)

a 2.08 m/s/s

Kinematics and Calculus

Lets take the derivative x v t 1 at 2

of kinematic #2 ox 2

assuming the object 1

d (vox t at )

2

dx 2

started at x = 0. v

dt dt

v vo at

dv d (v0 at )

a a

dt dt

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