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Mathematical Economics Lecture Note 1

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ALGEBRA

HYONG UK KIM

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

BASIC MATRIX OPERATION

APPLICATION

SYSTEM OF EQUATION(LINEAR SYSTEM)

DEFINITE MATRIX

Upper and Lower Triangular Matrices

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

Laplace formula

Cramers Rule

INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS A MATRIX?

INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS A MATRIX?

INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS A MATRIX?

MATRIX MULTIPLICATION

TRANSPOSE MATRIX

SPECIAL MATRICES: IDENTITY AND NULL

BASIC MATRIX OPERATIONS

BASIC MATRIX OPERATIONS

LAWS OF MATRIX ADDITION & MULTIPLICATION

LAWS OF MATRIX ADDITION & MULTIPLICATION

LAWS OF MATRIX ADDITION & MULTIPLICATION

INVERSE OF A MATRIX

INVERSE OF A MATRIX

INVERSE OF A MATRIX

TRANSPOSE

PARTITIONED MATRIX

PARTITIONED MATRIX

PROPERTIES OF SYMMETRIC MATRICES

APPLICATION: SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS

APPLICATION: SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS

SOLUTION OF A GENERAL EQUATION SYSTEM

SOLUTION OF A GENERAL EQUATION SYSTEM

SOLUTION OF A GENERAL EQUATION SYSTEM

SOLUTION OF A GENERAL EQUATION SYSTEM

SETS OF SOLUTIONS: GEOMETRICAL EXAMPLES

LINEAR DEPENDENCE

LINEAR DEPENDENCE

APPLICATION 1: ONE COMMODITY MARKET MODEL

APPLICATION 1: ONE COMMODITY MARKET MODEL

APPLICATION 2: FINITE MARKOV CHAINS

APPLICATION 2: FINITE MARKOV CHAINS

APPLICATION 2: FINITE MARKOV CHAINS

DEFINITE MATRICES FORMS( )

DEFINITE MATRICES FORMS

DEFINITE MATRICES DEFINITION( )

UPPER AND LOWER TRIANGULAR MATRICES

UT & LT MATRICES LU FACTORIZATION

UT & LT MATRICES FORWARD SUBSTITUTION

UT & LT MATRICES BACK SUBSTITUTION

UT & LT MATRICES LINEAR SYSTEMS

UT & LT MATRICES LDU DECOMPOSITION

INVERSE MATRIX (AGAIN)

INVERSE MATRIX: CALCULATION

DETERMINATION OF THE INVERSE (GAUSS-

JORDAN ELIMINATION)

GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION: EXAMPLE

GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION: EXAMPLE

GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION: EXAMPLE

RANK AND EXISTENCE OF SOLUTIONS

Is rank well-defined?

Lemma

The rank of a matrix A is always less than or equal to the number of columns

of A and less than or equal to the number of rows of A.

Lemma

Let A be a coefficient matrix and be an augmented coefficient matrix.

Then, rank (A) rank ().

RANK AND EXISTENCE OF SOLUTIONS

A system of linear equations with coefficient matrix A and augmented

coefficient matrix has a solution (perhaps more than one) if and only if

rank(A) = rank().

( )

Example

4y z 5 0 4 1 0 4 1 5

x 2 y z 2 A 1 2 1 , A 1 2 1 2

8 y 2 z 10 0 8 2 0 8 2 10

What if b3 -10 ?

RANK AND EXISTENCE OF SOLUTIONS

Multiple solutions means infinite solutions

Lemma

Suppose x1 and x2 are two distinct solutions to the system of equations Ax = b.

Then the system of equations has infinitely many solutions.(also uncountable)

A system of linear equations with coefficient matrix A will have a solution for any

choice of b1,, bm if and only if rank(A) is equal to the number of rows of A.

Corollary

For any system of equations with more equations than variables, (i.e. an

overdetermined system) there exists a choice of b such that no solutions exist.

RANK AND EXISTENCE OF SOLUTIONS

Uniqueness

Any system of equations with coefficient matrix A has at most one solution

for any b1,, bm if and only if rank(A) equals the number of columns of A.

Corollary

If rank(A) is less than the number of columns of A then either no solutions

exists or multiple solutions exists.

Corollary

A is nonsingular (always has a unique solution) if and only if A has an equal

number of columns and rows (A is square) and has rank equal to its number

of columns (or rows).

SUMMARY: RANK AND SOLUTION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS

TRACE OF A MATRIX

APPLICATION: RANK OF THE RESIDUAL MAKER

DETERMINANT OF A MATRIX

DETERMINANT OF A MATRIX

DETERMINANT OF A MATRIX

DETERMINANTS: LAPLACE FORMULA

DETERMINANTS: LAPLACE FORMULA

DETERMINANTS: LAPLACE FORMULA

DETERMINANTS: PROPERTIES

DETERMINANTS: CRAMERS RULE

DETERMINANTS: CRAMERS RULE

DETERMINANTS: CRAMERS RULE

DETERMINANTS: CRAMERS RULE

DETERMINANTS: CRAMERS RULE

CRAMERS RULE APPLICATION: MACRO MODEL

CRAMERS RULE APPLICATION: MACRO MODEL

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