You are on page 1of 20

ELECTRICAL AC & DC DRIVES

B
Y
S.Sumalatha

G.Lakshmi prasanna
Introduction:
In some countries nearly 65% of the total
electric energy produced is consumed by
electric motors.

DC motors play a significant role in modern


industrial drives.

DC motors can provide a high starting torque.


ELECTRIC DRIVES - A DEFINITION

About 50% of electrical energy produced is used in


electric drives today.Electric drives may run at
constant speed or at variable speed
Block diagram of Electrical drive:

Small
Efficient
Flexible
Components in electric drives
Motors
DC motors - permanent magnet wound field
AC motors induction, synchronous , brushless DC

Power sources
DC batteries, fuel cell, photovoltaic - unregulated
AC Single- three- phase utility, wind generator -
unregulated
DC drives can be classified, in general, into three types:

1. Single-phase drives
2. Three-phase drives

single-phase drives may be subdivided into:

Single-phase half-wave-converter drives.


Single-phase full-converter drives.
Single-phase dual-converter drives.
Single-Phase Half-Wave-Converter Drives:
The applications of this drive are limited to the 0.5 kW
power level.
Single-Phase Full-Wave-Converter Drives
It is a two-quadrant drive, and is limited to
applications up to 15 kW.
Three-phase drives may also be subdivided
into:
-Three-phase half-wave-converter drives.
Three-phase full-converter drives.
A three phase half wave converter drive
operates in first quardant and is limited to
applications upto 40kw.

A three-phase full-wave-converter drive is a two-


quadrant drive without any field reversal, and is
limited to applications up to 1500 kW.
Introduction: AC Motor Drives

There are two types of ac drives:

Induction motor drives


Synchronous motor drives

Ac drives are replacing dc drives and are used in


many industrial and domestic applications
The speed and torque of induction motors can be
controlled by

Stator voltage control


Rotor voltage control
Frequency control
Stator Voltage Control:
The stator voltage can be varied by three-phase

ac voltage controllers,
pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverters

They are used mainly in low-power applications, such as


fans, blowers, and centrifugal pumps, where the starting
torque is low.
Rotor Voltage Control:

The typical torque-speed characteristics for variations


in rotor resistance
Frequency Control:
The torque and speed of induction motors can be
controlled by changing the supply frequency.

At low frequency, the reactances decrease and the


motor current may be too high. This type of frequency
control is not normally used.
Energy/Cost Savings
System efficiency can be increased from 15%
to 27% by introducing variable-speed drive
operation in place of constant-speed
operation.

For a large pump variable-speed drive,


payback period ~ 3-5 years whereas operating
life is ~ 20 years
DC DRIVES Vs AC DRIVES
Advantages:
Ac motors are less expensive as compared
to dc motors.
Ac motors require low maintenance as
compared to dc motors.
Disadvantages:
Power converters for ac drives are complex.
Power converters for ac drives generates
harmonics in the supply system & load
circuit
Conclusion:
In India, we are using three phase,50hz ac
supply as an input. There so many
applications that require higher frequency and
phases for better operations of industrial
equipments. Even though we are with same
frequency for particular applications keeping
economy in point of view.