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ELECTRICAL DRIVES:

An Application of Power Electronics


CONTENTS

Power Electronic Systems

Modern Electrical Drive Systems

Power Electronic Converters in Electrical Drives


:: DC and AC Drives

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives


Power Electronic Systems

What is Power Electronics ?

A field of Electrical Engineering that deals with the


application of power semiconductor devices for the
control and conversion of electric power

sensors
Input Power
Source Electronics Load
- AC
- DC Converters Output
- unregulated - AC
- DC
POWER ELECTRONIC
CONVERTERS the
heart of power a power
Reference Controller electronics system
Power Electronic Systems

Why Power Electronics ?

sensors
Input Power
Source Electronics IDEALLY
Load
- AC
Converters LOSSLESS !
Output
- DC
- unregulated - AC
- DC

Reference Controller
Power Electronic Systems

Why Power Electronics ?

Other factors:
Improvements in power semiconductors fabrica
Power Integrated Module (PIM), Intelligent
Power Modules (IPM)

Decline cost in power semiconductor

Advancement in semiconductor fabrication


ASICs FPGA DSPs
Faster and cheaper to implement
complex algorithm
Power Electronic Systems

Some Applications of Power Electronics :


Typically used in systems requiring efficient control and conversion of
electric energy:
Domestic and Commercial Applications
Industrial Applications
Telecommunications
Transportation
Generation, Transmission and Distribution of electrical energy

Power rating of < 1 W (portable equipment)


Tens or hundreds Watts (Power supplies for computers /office equipment)
kW to MW : drives
Hundreds of MW in DC transmission system (HVDC)
Modern Electrical Drive Systems

Classic Electrical Drive for Variable Speed Application :

Bulky
Inefficient
inflexible
Modern Electrical Drive Systems

Typical Modern Electric Drive Systems

Power Electronic Converters Electric Motor


Electric Energy Electric Energy Electric Mechanical
- Unregulated - - Regulated - Energy Energy

POWER IN Power
Moto Loa
Electronic r d
Converters

feedback

Reference
Controller
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Example on VSD application

Constant speed Variable Speed Drives

valve

Supply
motor pump

Power out

Power
In

Power loss
Mainly in valve
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Example on VSD application

Constant speed Variable Speed Drives

valve

Supply Supply
motor pump motor
PEC pump

Power out
Power out
Power
Power
In
In

Power loss
Power loss
Mainly in valve
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Example on VSD application

Constant speed Variable Speed Drives

valve

Supply Supply
motor pump motor
PEC pump

Power out
Power out
Power
Power
In
In

Power loss
Power loss
Mainly in valve
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Example on VSD application

Electric motor consumes more than half of electrical energy in the US

Fixed speed Variable speed

Improvements in energy utilization in electric motors give large


impact to the overall energy consumption

HOW ?
Replacing fixed speed drives with variable speed drives
Using the high efficiency motors

Improves the existing power converterbased drive systems


Modern Electrical Drive Systems

Overview of AC and DC drives

DC drives: Electrical drives that use DC motors as the prime mover


Regular maintenance, heavy, expensive, speed limit
Easy control, decouple control of torque and flux

AC drives: Electrical drives that use AC motors as the prime mover


Less maintenance, light, less expensive, high speed

Coupling between torque and flux variable spatial angle


between rotor and stator flux
Modern Electrical Drive Systems

Overview of AC and DC drives

Before semiconductor devices were introduced (<1950)


AC motors for fixed speed applications
DC motors for variable speed applications

After semiconductor devices were introduced (1960s)


Variable frequency sources available AC motors in variable
speed applications
Coupling between flux and torque control
Application limited to medium performance applications
fans, blowers, compressors scalar control

High performance applications dominated by DC motors


tractions, elevators, servos, etc
Modern Electrical Drive Systems

Overview of AC and DC drives

After vector control drives were introduced (1980s)


AC motors used in high performance applications elevators,
tractions, servos
AC motors favorable than DC motors however control is
complex hence expensive
Cost of microprocessor/semiconductors decreasing predicted
30 years ago AC motors would take over DC motors
Modern Electrical Drive Systems

Overview of AC and DC drives


Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
Converters for Motor Drives
(some possible configurations)

DC Drives AC Drives

AC Source DC Source AC Source DC Source

DC-AC-
DC-DC
DC
AC-DC- AC-DC- DC-DC-
AC-DC AC-AC DC-AC
DC AC AC

Const. Variable NCC FCC


DC DC
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems

Converters for Motor Drives

Configurations of Power Electronic Converters depend on:

Sources available

Type of Motors

Drive Performance - applications


- Braking
- Response
- Ratings
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES

Available AC source to control DC motor (brushed)

AC-DC-
AC-DC DC

Uncontrolled Rectifier
Single-phase Control
Control
Three-phase
Controlled Rectifier DC-DC Switched mode
Single-phase 1-quadrant, 2-quadrant
Three-phase 4-quadrant
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC
400

200

-200

+ 2Vm
Vo cos
-400
0.4 0.405 0.41 0.415 0.42 0.425 0.43 0.435 0.44


10

50Hz Vo
1-phase Average voltage 5

over 10ms
0
0.4 0.405 0.41 0.415 0.42 0.425 0.43 0.435 0.44

500

50Hz
+ -500
3-phase
0.4 0.405 0.41 0.415 0.42 0.425 0.43 0.435 0.44
3VL L ,m
Vo Vo cos 30

20

Average voltage
over 3.33 ms 10

0
0.4 0.405 0.41 0.415 0.42 0.425 0.43 0.435 0.44
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC
2Vm

+ 2Vm
Vo cos

50Hz Vo 90o 180o
1-phase Average voltage
over 10ms
2Vm

3VL L,m

50Hz
+
3-phase
3VL L ,m
Vo Vo cos
90o 180o

Average voltage
over 3.33 ms 3VL L ,m


Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC

ia

+
Vt
3-phase Q1
supply Vt Q2

Q3 Q4 Ia

- Operation in quadrant 1 and 4 only


Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC

+
3-
phase 3-phase
Vt supply
supply

Q2 Q1

Q3 Q4
T
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC

F1 R1

3phase
supply
+ Va -
R2 F2

Q2 Q1

Q3 Q4
T
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC
Cascade control structure with armature reversal (4-quadrant):

iD

ref + Speed iD,ref + Current Firing


controlle Controlle Circuit
r _ r
_

iD,ref
Armature
iD, reversal
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC

control
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter

Va
T1 D1
+
ia
Vdc Q2 Q1

+ Ia
T2 D2
Va

T1 conducts va = Vdc
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter

Va
T1 D1
+
ia
Vdc Q2 Q1

+ Ia
T2 D2
Va

D2 conducts va = 0 T1 conducts va = Vdc

Va Eb

Quadrant 1 The average voltage is made larger than the back emf
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter

Va
T1 D1
+
ia
Vdc Q2 Q1

+ Ia
T2 D2
Va

D1 conducts va = Vdc
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter

Va
T1 D1
+
ia
Vdc Q2 Q1

+ Ia
T2 D2
Va

T2 conducts va = 0 D1 conducts va = Vdc

Va Eb

Quadrant 2 The average voltage is made smallerr than the back emf, thus
forcing the current to flow in the reverse direction
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter

vc
2vtri

+
vA Vdc
-

+
vc
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
leg A leg B

+ D1 D3
Q1 Q3
+Va
Vdc

D4 D2
Q4 Q2

Positive current
va = Vdc when Q1 and Q2 are ON
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
leg A leg B

+ D1 D3
Q1 Q3
+Va
Vdc

D4 D2
Q4 Q2

Positive current
va = Vdc when Q1 and Q2 are ON
va = -Vdc when D3 and D4 are ON
va = 0 when current freewheels through Q and D
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
leg A leg B

+ D1 D3
Q1 Q3
+Va
Vdc

D4 D2
Q4 Q2

Positive current Negative current


va = Vdc when Q1 and Q2 are ON va = Vdc when D1 and D2 are ON
va = -Vdc when D3 and D4 are ON
va = 0 when current freewheels through Q and D
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
leg A leg B

+ D1 D3
Q1 Q3
+Va
Vdc

D4 D2
Q4 Q2

Positive current Negative current


va = Vdc when Q1 and Q2 are ON va = Vdc when D1 and D2 are ON
va = -Vdc when D3 and D4 are ON va = -Vdc when Q3 and Q4 are ON
va = 0 when current freewheels through Q and D va = 0 when current freewheels through Q and D