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# SE301: Numerical Methods

Topic 8
Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)
Lecture 28-36

KFUPM
(Term 101)
Section 04

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Outline of Topic 8
Lesson 1: Introduction to ODEs
Lesson 2: Taylor series methods
Lesson 3: Midpoint and Heuns method
Lessons 4-5: Runge-Kutta methods
Lesson 6: Solving systems of ODEs
Lesson 7: Multiple step Methods
Lesson 8-9: Boundary value Problems

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Lecture 30
Lesson 3: Midpoint and
Heuns Predictor
Corrector Methods

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Learning Objectives of
Lesson 3
To be able to solve first order
differential equations using the
Midpoint Method.
To be able to solve first order
differential equations using the
Heuns Predictor Corrector Method.

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Topic 8: Lesson 3
Lesson 3: Midpoint and Heuns
Predictor-Corrector Methods

## Review Euler Method

Heuns Method
Midpoint Method

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Euler Method
Problem Euler Method
y ( x) f ( x, y ) y0 y ( x0 )
y ( x0 ) y0 yi 1 yi h f ( xi , yi )
for i 1,2,...

2
Local Truncation Error O(h )
Global Truncation Error O(h)
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Introduction
Problem to be solved is a first order ODE :
y ( x) f ( x, y ), y ( x0 ) y0
The methods proposed in this lesson
have the general form:
yi 1 yi h
For the case of Euler: f ( xi , yi )
Different forms of will be used for
the Midpoint and Heuns Methods.
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Midpoint Method
Problem Midpoint Method
y ( x) f ( x, y ) y0 y ( x0 )
h
y ( x0 ) y0 y 1 yi f ( xi , yi )
i
2 2
yi 1 yi h f ( x 1 ,y 1 )
i i
2 2

## Local Truncation Error O(h 3 )

Global Truncation Error O(h 2 )
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Motivation
The midpoint can be summarized as:
Euler method is used to estimate the solution
at the midpoint.
The value of the rate function f(x,y) at the mid
point is calculated.
This value is used to estimate yi+1.
Local Truncation error of order O(h3).
Comparable to Second order Taylor series
method.

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Midpoint Method

( xi , yi )

x0 x 1 xi 1
i
2
h
y 1 yi f ( xi , yi ) , yi 1 yi h f ( x 1 ,y 1 )
i
2 2 i
2
i
2
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Midpoint Method

slope f ( xi , yi )

( xi , yi )

x0 x 1 xi 1
i
2
h
y 1 yi f ( xi , yi ) , yi 1 yi h f ( x 1 ,y 1 )
i
2 2 i
2
i
2
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Midpoint Method

(x ,y )
slope f ( xi , yi )
1 1
i i
2 2

( xi , yi )

x0 x 1 xi 1
i
2
h
y 1 yi f ( xi , yi ) , yi 1 yi h f ( x 1 ,y 1 )
i
2 2 i
2
i
2
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Midpoint Method
slope f ( x 1 ,y 1 )
i i
(x 1 ,y 1 ) 2 2

i i
2 2

( xi , yi )

x0 x 1 xi 1
i
2
h
y 1 yi f ( xi , yi ) , yi 1 yi h f ( x 1 ,y 1 )
i
2 2 i
2
i
2
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Midpoint Method
slope f ( x 1 ,y 1 )
i i
(x 1 ,y 1 ) 2 2
i i
2 2

( xi , yi )

x0 x 1 xi 1
i
2
h
y 1 yi f ( xi , yi ) , yi 1 yi h f ( x 1 ,y 1 )
i
2 2 i
2
i
2
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Example 1

## Use the Midpoint Method to solve the ODE

y ( x) 1 x 2 y
y (0) 1
Use h 0.1. Determine y(0.1) and y(0.2)

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Example 1
Problem : f ( x, y ) 1 x 2 y , y0 y (0) 1, h 0.1
Step 1 :
h
y 1 y0 f ( x0 , y0 ) 1 0.05(1 0 1) 1.1
0
2
2
y1 y0 h f ( x 1, y 1) 1 0.1(1 0.0025 1.1) 1.2103
0 0
2 2
Step 2 :
h
y 1 y1 f ( x1 , y1 ) 1.2103 .05(1 0.01 1.2103) 1.3213
1
2
2
y2 y1 h f ( x 1, y 1) 1.2103 0.1( 2.3438) 1.4446
1 1
2 2
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Heuns Predictor
Corrector

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Heuns Predictor Corrector
Method
Problem Heun ' s Method
y ( x ) f ( x, y ) y0 y ( x0 )
y ( x0 ) y0 Predictor : yi01 yi h f ( xi , yi )

Corrector : yi11 yi
h
2

f ( xi , yi ) f ( xi 1, yi01 )

## Local Truncation Error O(h 3 )

Global Truncation Error O(h 2 )

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Heuns Predictor Corrector
(Prediction)

( xi 1 , yi01 )

( xi , yi )

xi xi 1
0
Prediction yi 1 yi h f ( xi , yi )
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Heuns Predictor Corrector
(Prediction)

( xi 1 , yi01 )
slope f ( xi 1 , yi01 )

( xi , yi )

xi xi 1

Prediction y 0
i 1 yi h f ( xi , yi )
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Heuns Predictor Corrector
(Correction)
f ( xi , yi ) f ( xi 1 , yi01 )
slope
2
( xi 1 , yi01 )

( xi , yi ) ( xi 1 , yi11 )

xi xi 1

y 1
i 1 yi
h
2

f ( xi , yi ) f ( xi 1 , yi01 )
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Example 2
Use the Heun' s Method to solve the ODE
y ( x) 1 x y
2

y (0) 1
Use h 0.1. One correction only
Determine y(0.1) and y(0.2)

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Example 2
Problem : f ( x, y ) 1 y x 2 , y0 y ( x0 ) 1, h 0.1

Step 1 :
Predictor : y10 y0 h f ( x0 , y0 ) 1 0.1(2) 1.2

Corrector : y y0
1
1
h
2

f ( x0 , y0 ) f ( x1 , y10 ) 1.2105

Step 2 :
Predictor : y20 y1 h f ( x1 , y1 ) 1.4326

Corrector : y y1
1
2
h
2

f ( x1 , y1 ) f ( x2 , y20 ) 1.4452

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Summary
Euler, Midpoint and Heuns methods are
similar in the following sense:
yi 1 yi h slope
Different methods use different estimates of
the slope.
Both Midpoint and Heuns methods are
comparable in accuracy to the second
order Taylor series method.

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Comparison
Method Local
truncation
Global
truncation
error error

## Euler Method yi 1 yi h f ( xi , yi ) O(h 2 ) O ( h)

Heun' s Method
Predictor : yi01 yi h f ( xi , yi ) O(h 3 ) O(h 2 )
k 1
Corrector : y yi
i 1
h
2

f ( xi , yi ) f ( xi 1 , yik1 )
h
Midpoint y 1 yi f ( xi , yi ) O(h3 ) O(h 2 )
i
2 2
yi 1 yi h f ( x 1 ,y 1 )
i i
2 2

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More in this Topic

## Lessons 4-5: Runge-Kutta Methods

Lesson 6: Systems of High order ODE
Lesson 7: Multi-step methods
Lessons 8-9: Boundary Value Problems

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