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5.

4 Magnetic effects of
electric currents
Over the course of this double lesson you will be making
notes about topic 5.4 in your books using the
information provided in this PowerPoint.

You then have to make a summary document about a


section of the course. The document should include key
notes, a worked example, and further questions to try.

Where possible, you should try making a video that


summarises your work.
Topics to cover
Haruto 5.2 Ohms Law, Resistivity and
combining resistors in series and
parallel (198 207)
Zarif 5.3 Determining internal
resistance of a cell experimentally
(223 226)
Brandon 5.2 Kirchoffs Laws and the Power
Equations (211 216)
Jasmine 5.4 Forces on a current carrying
wire, and moving charged particle
(236 239)
Rudy 5.4 Magnetic Fields and the Motor
Magnetic Fields
A magnetic field is an area around a magnet, within
which a magnetic material would experience a force.
The field can be shown by drawing field lines. Iron filings
can be used to show the magnetic field around a bar
magnet. Field lines always travel from North to
South.
Denser lines = stronger field (e.g.
near poles)
Field lines never cross

A uniform magnetic field


can be created between
two permanent magnetic
poles.
Electromagnetism
When a current flows in a
wire a magnetic field is
produced.
The field is circular, around
the wire.
It is strongest near to the
wire.
The direction of the current is
determined using the right-
hand grip rule A solenoid is a coil of
wire that produces a
magnetic field similar
to a bar magnet.
Electromagnets
The magnetic field produced around a wire can be used to create an
electromagnet. These can be turned on and off, and their strength
can be changed, unlike permanent magnets.
The strength of an
electromagnet can be
increased by:
1. Adding more turns on the coil,
2. Adding a soft iron core,
3. Increasing the current

Electromagnets are
used in Relay
Switches and
Electric Bells,
The Motor Effect
A current carrying wire in
a magnetic field will
experience a force.
This is because the current
produces its own
magnetic field.

The direction of the


force can be
determined using
Flemings Left Hand
Force on a current
carrying wire
T h e s tre n g th o f a m a g n e tic fie ld is a ls o k n o w n a s th e
m a g n e tic flu x d e n s ity . T h e m o re d e n s e th e m a g n e tic
fie ld lin e s , th e h ig h e r th e m a g n e tic flu x d e n s ity . It is
m e a s u re d in te s la (T ) a n d h a s th e s y m b o l B .
Force on a current
carrying wire
We calculate the force on a current carrying wire in a
magnetic field using,

F = BIl sin

Where F is the force in Newtons,


B is the magnetic field strength in Tesla,
I is the current in Amps,
l is the length of the wire in metres
is the angle formed between the wire and the
magnetic field
Force on a charged
particle
A charged particle
moving in a magnetic
field will experience a
force. In a particle
detector there is a
large magnetic field
to help identify these
charged particles.

Q = It
F = BIl sin F = BQv sin
v=l/t