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# Band Pass Systems, Phasors and Complex Representation of Systems

## I. Phasors (complex envelope) representation for

sinusoidal signal
narrow band signal

System

## Phasors and Complex Representation are useful for analyzing

baseband component of a signal
eliminates high frequency carrier components

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I. Phasors for monochromatic & narrow band signals

## x(t) is a narrowband signal (aka bandpass signal) if

X(f) 0 in some small neighborhood of f0 , a high frequency

## f0 is usually referred to as center frequency, but need not be

center frequency or in signal bandwidth at all
2W X(f)

-f0 -W -f0 - f0 +W f0 -W f0 f0 +W

## h(t) is a Bandpass System,, that passes signals with frequency components in

the neighborhood of some frequency, f0
X(f) H(f) X(f)
H(f) = 1 for | f f0 | W otherwise H(f) 0

## bandpass system h(t) passes a bandpass signal x(t)

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Consider LTI system driven by input x(t)
output determined by multiplying X & frequency response of
system computed at input frequency, f0
input & output frequencies are same output phasor gives output
signal

## determine the phasor for sinusoida1 signal and narrowband signal

capture phase and magnitude of base band signal
ignore effects of the carrier

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1. determination of phasor, X for sinusoidal input signal x(t)
x(t) = Acos(2f0 t + )
xq(t) = Asin(2f0 t + )
quadrature component shifted 90o from x(t)
(i) define a signal z(t) as a vector rotating with angular frequency 2f0
z(t) = Aexp(j(2f0t + )) I
xq(t) Aexp(j)
= Acos(2f0t + ) + jAsin(2f0t + )
2f0
= x(t) + jxq(t)
R
(ii) obtain phasor X from z(t) by eliminating 2f0 rotation x(t)

## - rotate z(t) at an angular frequency = 2f0 in opposite direction

- equivalent to multiplying z(t) by exp(2f0t)
X = z(t) exp(-j2f0t ) = Aexp(j(2f0t + ))exp(-j2f0t )
= Aexp(j)
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1a. determine Frequency Domain equivalent of z(t) and X
(i) obtain Z(f), using either or two methods

## (1) determine X(f) = F[x(t)], delete negative frequencies & multiply by 2

x(t) = Acos(2f0t + ) = Acos()cos(2f0t) + Asin()sin(2f0t)
A A
X(f) = cos()[(ff0 ) + (f+f0)] - j sin()[(f+f0) - (f-f0)]
2 2
2A
Z(f) = [cos()(ff0 ) + jsin()(ff0 )]
2

## (2) determine Z(f) = F[z(t)]

z(t) = Aexp(j(2f0t + )) = Aexp(j)exp(j2f0t )

## (ii) then shift Z(f) by f0 X = Aexp(j)

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2. determine phasor for a narrowband signal, x(t)
based on definition of z(t) in sinusoid case: z(t) = x(t) + jxq(t)
find Z(f) by deleting negative frequencies of X(f) & multiply result by 2

Z(f) = 2u-1(f)X(f)
z(t) is known as the analytic signal or pre-envelope of x(t)

find z(t) using IFT find signal whose Fourier transform = u-1(f)
1 1
we know that F[u-1(t)] = ( f )
2 j 2f
1 j
by duality F (t ) = u-1(f)
2 2t
j
by convolution z(t) = ( t ) x (t )
t
1
let x ( t ) x(t ) then z(t) = x ( t ) jx ( t )
t
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pre-envelope for two types of signals

## (i) sinusoid case z(t) = x(t) + jxq(t)

x(t) = Acos(2f0 t+)
xq(t)= Asin(2f0 t+)

## (ii) narrowband case

z(t) = x(t) + j x (t )

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Hilbert Transform of x(t) is given by
x ( t ) x(t )
t

phase shift x(t) by for positive frequencies
2

phase shift x(t) by for negative frequencies
2

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determine phasor, xl(t) of bandpass signal x(t)
xl(t) = low pass representation of x(t)
determined by shifting spectrum of z(t) left by f0

## Xl(f) = Z(f + f0) = 2u-1(f + f0)X(f + f0)

X(f)
A
xl(t) = z(t)exp(-j2f0t)
f0 f0 f
Z(f)
xl(t) is a low pass signal 2A

## Xl(f) 0 for all | f | W f

f0
phasor for band pass signal Xl(f)
2A

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Generally xl(t) is complex signal with real (in phase) & imaginary
xl(t) = xc(t) + jxs(t)

## z(t) = x ( t ) jx ( t ) rewrite in terms of quadrature & in-phase components

z(t) = xl(t)exp(j2f0t)

= [xc(t) + jxs(t)]exp(j2f0t)

## = xc(t)cos(2f0t) - xs(t)sin(2f0t) + j[xc(t)sin(2f0t)+xs(t)cos(2f0t)]

equate real & imaginary parts of z(t) and xl(t)
x(t) = Re{z(t)} = xc(t)cos(2f0t) - xs(t)sin(2f0t)

x ( t ) = Im{z(t)} = xc(t)sin(2f0t)+xs(t)cos(2f0t)

## bandpass to lowpass transform describes relationship of x(t) & x ( t )in terms

of xc(t) & xs(t)
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Define xl(t) in terms of phase & envelope

## define envelope of xl(t) as V(t) = xc2 (t ) xs2 (t )

xs (t ) I
define phase of xl(t) as (t) = tan 1
xc ( t )
xl(t)
then xl(t) = V(t)exp( j(t) ) V(t)
xs (t ) (t)
= x (t ) x (t )
2
tan
2
1
c s
xc ( t ) R

## V(t) & (t) are slowly time varying

monochromatic phasor has constant amplitude & phase
bandpass signals phase & envelope vary slowly with time vector
representation moves on a curve in the complex plane

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II. Complex Representation of Linear Modulated Signals & Bandpass
System

## sI(t) = in-phase component of s(t)

sQ(t) = quadrature component of s(t)

## properties of sI(t) & sQ(t)

are real valued functions
are orthogonal to each other
are uniquely defined in terms of the baseband signal m(t)
two components can be used to synthesize modulated signal s(t)

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circuit used to synthesize s(t) from sI(t) & sQ(t)

sI(t)
cos(2fct)
oscillator
s(t)
90o
sin(2fct)
sQ(t)

## circuits used to analyze sI(t) & sQ(t) based on s(t),

LPF sI(t)
2cos(2fct)
oscillator
s(t)
90o
-2sin(2fct)
LPF sQ(t)

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1. Complex Envelope of a Band-Pass Signal s(t) is given as

real imag

## then, s(t) = Re{ss (t)e(2fct)}

= sI(t)cos(2fct) - sQ(t)sin(2fct)

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2. Consider a narrowband linear band-pass system
system is narrowband if bandwidth W << fc , the systems center
frequency
x(t) h(t) y(t)
input x(t) is modulated by carrier, fc
output = y(t)
canonical representation of systems impulse response given by:

## use equivalent complex baseband model to simplify analysis

impulse response given by
hs (t) = hI(t) + jhQ(t) xs (t) hss (t) 2(t)

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2.1 Passband Analysis of LTI System

y(t) = x( )h(t )d

## y(t) = [xI()cos(2fc )-xQ(t)sin(2fc )]

[hI(t-)cos(2fct-)-hQ(t-)sin(2fct-)]d

d

## + xQ(t) hQ(t-) sin(2fct)sin(2fct-) d

- xI(t)hQ(t-)cos(2fct)sin(2fct-) d

-

xQ(t)hI(t-)cos(2fct-)sin(2fct) d

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Passband Analysis of LTI System (continued)

y(t) = xI(t) hI(t-) [ cos() + cos(4fc t-) ] d

## + xQ(t) hQ(t-) [ cos() - cos(4fc t-) ] d

- xI(t)hQ(t-)[ sin(4fc t) + sin() ]

d

- xQ(t)hI(t-)[ sin(4fc t) - sin() ]

d

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2.2 Equivalent Complex Baseband Model
complex input & output are complex envelopes of bandpass systems
input & output
xs (t) = xI(t) + jxQ(t) is the complex envelope of x(t)
(t) = yI(t) + jyQ(t) is the complex envelope of y(t)

## complex envelopes are related by complex convolution

1 ~ ~ 1 ~ ~
(t) = x ( )h (t )d = x (t )h ( )d
2 2

## = hI(t-)xI(t) - hQ(t-)xQ(t) + j[xQ(t)hI(t-) + hQ(t-)xI(t)]d

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Equivalent Notation for complex baseband model ( = convolution)
(t) = (xss (t) hs (t)) = (hs (t) xss (t))
factor added to maintain equivalence between real & complex models
fc is omitted from complex baseband model simplifies analysis
without loss of information

## Impulse response of band-pass system given by

h(t) = Re{hs (t)exp(2fct)}
= Re{ (hI(t) + jhQ(t)) (cos(2fct) + jsin(2fct) ) }
= hI(t)cos(2fct) - hQ(t) sin(2fct)

Passband signals are readily determined from (t) and xss (t)
x(t) = Re{xss (t)exp(2fct)}

y(t) = Re{(t)exp(2fct)}

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Appendix: More on Complex Envelope - viewed as an extension of phasor
for a real harmonic signal x(t)
x(t) = x cos(2f0t + x) tR
assume x 0 and phase is 0 x < 2, then:
(i) exp( j(2f0t+x )) = cos(2f0t +x) + jsin(2f0t +x)

## (ii) x(t) = Re[x ( cos(2f0t +x) + jsin(2f0t +x) )] tR

= Re [x exp(j(2f0t + x))] tR
= Re [x exp(jx) exp(j2f0t )] tR

## phasor representing phase & magnitude of x(t) = complex envelope:

x exp(jx) = x cos(x) + jx sin(x)
x = magnitude
x = argument (phase of x(t))
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derive complex envelope for any real continuous signal, x(t)
assume x(t) = Re [xe(t) exp(j2f0t )] tR

## i. Take Fourier Transform of x(t)

X(f) = F[x cos(2f0t+ x)] = 1 x exp(jx)(f-f0) + 1x exp(-jx)(f+f0)
2 2

## ii. suppress negative frequencies & multiply by 2

xs p(f) = x exp(jx)(f-f0) fR

## iii. shift left by f0 to obtain frequency signal

xss e(f) = x exp(jx)(f0) fR

## iv. take Inverse Fourier Transform

F-1[xs e(f) ] = xe(t) = x exp(jx)
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e.g. Pure Harmonic signal given by x(t) = cos(2f1t + x) tR
where x 0
0 x < 2

## iii. xss e(f) = exp(j)(f-f1+f0)

iv xe(t) = exp(j)exp(2j(f1-f0))t tR

## if |f1-f0| << f0 xe varies slowly compared to exp(2jf0t)

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If x(t) = real, continuous function, & F(x) has no delta function at f = 0

## xs e(f) = xs p(f+f0) = 2X(f+f0) 1(f+f0) fR

xe(t) = F-1[ xss e(f) ]

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Complex Envelope for let x(t) = real, band-pass, band-limited signal
fc = center frequency & W = bandwidth
where W < fc, are positive real numbers (W << fc x(t) is narrowband)
X(f) = 0 for | f | < fc-W and | f | > fc+W fR

X(f) W W

0
-fc 0 fc
x p ( f )

xp = analytical
0 fc

x e ( f )
xe = complex envelope with respect to f0
contains only low frequencies
f0 R+ xe is not uniquely defined 0
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