1
I. Phasors for monochromatic & narrow band signals
f0 W f0  f0 +W f0 W f0 f0 +W
3
1. determination of phasor, X for sinusoidal input signal x(t)
x(t) = Acos(2f0 t + )
xq(t) = Asin(2f0 t + )
quadrature component shifted 90o from x(t)
(i) define a signal z(t) as a vector rotating with angular frequency 2f0
z(t) = Aexp(j(2f0t + )) I
xq(t) Aexp(j)
= Acos(2f0t + ) + jAsin(2f0t + )
2f0
= x(t) + jxq(t)
R
(ii) obtain phasor X from z(t) by eliminating 2f0 rotation x(t)
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2. determine phasor for a narrowband signal, x(t)
based on definition of z(t) in sinusoid case: z(t) = x(t) + jxq(t)
find Z(f) by deleting negative frequencies of X(f) & multiply result by 2
Z(f) = 2u1(f)X(f)
z(t) is known as the analytic signal or preenvelope of x(t)
find z(t) using IFT find signal whose Fourier transform = u1(f)
1 1
we know that F[u1(t)] = ( f )
2 j 2f
1 j
by duality F (t ) = u1(f)
2 2t
j
by convolution z(t) = ( t ) x (t )
t
1
let x ( t ) x(t ) then z(t) = x ( t ) jx ( t )
t
6
preenvelope for two types of signals
1
Hilbert Transform of x(t) is given by
x ( t ) x(t )
t
phase shift x(t) by for positive frequencies
2
phase shift x(t) by for negative frequencies
2
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determine phasor, xl(t) of bandpass signal x(t)
xl(t) = low pass representation of x(t)
determined by shifting spectrum of z(t) left by f0
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Generally xl(t) is complex signal with real (in phase) & imaginary
(quadrature) components
xl(t) = xc(t) + jxs(t)
= [xc(t) + jxs(t)]exp(j2f0t)
x ( t ) = Im{z(t)} = xc(t)sin(2f0t)+xs(t)cos(2f0t)
xs (t ) I
define phase of xl(t) as (t) = tan 1
xc ( t )
xl(t)
then xl(t) = V(t)exp( j(t) ) V(t)
xs (t ) (t)
= x (t ) x (t )
2
tan
2
1
c s
xc ( t ) R
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II. Complex Representation of Linear Modulated Signals & Bandpass
System
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circuit used to synthesize s(t) from sI(t) & sQ(t)
sI(t)
cos(2fct)
oscillator
s(t)
90o
sin(2fct)
sQ(t)
LPF sI(t)
2cos(2fct)
oscillator
s(t)
90o
2sin(2fct)
LPF sQ(t)
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1. Complex Envelope of a BandPass Signal s(t) is given as
= sI(t)cos(2fct)  sQ(t)sin(2fct)
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2. Consider a narrowband linear bandpass system
system is narrowband if bandwidth W << fc , the systems center
frequency
x(t) h(t) y(t)
input x(t) is modulated by carrier, fc
output = y(t)
canonical representation of systems impulse response given by:
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2.1 Passband Analysis of LTI System
y(t) = x( )h(t )d
 xI(t)hQ(t)cos(2fct)sin(2fct) d

xQ(t)hI(t)cos(2fct)sin(2fct) d
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Passband Analysis of LTI System (continued)
y(t) = xI(t) hI(t) [ cos() + cos(4fc t) ] d
 xQ(t)hI(t)[ sin(4fc t)  sin() ]
d
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2.2 Equivalent Complex Baseband Model
complex input & output are complex envelopes of bandpass systems
input & output
xs (t) = xI(t) + jxQ(t) is the complex envelope of x(t)
(t) = yI(t) + jyQ(t) is the complex envelope of y(t)
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Equivalent Notation for complex baseband model ( = convolution)
(t) = (xss (t) hs (t)) = (hs (t) xss (t))
factor added to maintain equivalence between real & complex models
fc is omitted from complex baseband model simplifies analysis
without loss of information
Passband signals are readily determined from (t) and xss (t)
x(t) = Re{xss (t)exp(2fct)}
y(t) = Re{(t)exp(2fct)}
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Appendix: More on Complex Envelope  viewed as an extension of phasor
for a real harmonic signal x(t)
x(t) = x cos(2f0t + x) tR
assume x 0 and phase is 0 x < 2, then:
(i) exp( j(2f0t+x )) = cos(2f0t +x) + jsin(2f0t +x)
= Re [x exp(j(2f0t + x))] tR
= Re [x exp(jx) exp(j2f0t )] tR
xs p(f) = x exp(jx)(ff0) fR
iv xe(t) = exp(j)exp(2j(f1f0))t tR
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If x(t) = real, continuous function, & F(x) has no delta function at f = 0
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Complex Envelope for let x(t) = real, bandpass, bandlimited signal
fc = center frequency & W = bandwidth
where W < fc, are positive real numbers (W << fc x(t) is narrowband)
X(f) = 0 for  f  < fcW and  f  > fc+W fR
X(f) W W
0
fc 0 fc
x p ( f )
xp = analytical
0 fc
x e ( f )
xe = complex envelope with respect to f0
contains only low frequencies
f0 R+ xe is not uniquely defined 0
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