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# Hydrostatic Forces on Curved, Submerged Surfaces

x
Pressure is always acting
Pz perpendicular to the solid surface
P since there is no shear motion in
static condition.
Px
r r r
Z P=Pcos( ) i+Psin( )j
Integrate over the entire surface
r r r r
dF=dFx i dFz j PdA
r r
(Pcos( ) i+Psin( )j)dA
dA =dAcos()
x dFx PdA cos( ) PdAx
dFz PdA sin( ) PdAz
dAz=dAsin()
Projected Forces
dFx PdA cos( ) PdAx , dFZ PdA sin( ) PdAZ
Integrate over the entire surface:
Fx dFx PdAx ghdAx , Fz dFz PdAz ghdAz
x
Fz g hdAz g
h where is the fluid volume enclosed
between the curved surface and the
dAz free surface. The force is equal to the
weight of the total colume of fluid
Z
Integrated over directly above the curved surface.
all elements
The line action passes through the
center of gravity of the volume
of liquid being displaced.
Buoyancy

## Force acting down FD= gV1

from

Buoyancy = FU-FD
=g(V2-V1)=gV
V: volume occupied by the object

## Force acting up FU = gV2

from
Horizontal Forces
x
h Fx dFx PdAx ghdAx

Projected
area Ax dAz Finding Fx is to determine the force acting
on a plane submerged surface oriented
Z perpendicular to the surface. Ax is the
Integrated over projection of the curved surface on the yz
all elements plane. Similar conclusion can be made to
the force in the y direction Fy.

## dAx Fx dFx PdAx ghdAx

Equivalent system:
A plane surface perpendicular
to the free surface
Examples
Determine the magnitude of the resultant force acting on the hemispherical surface.

x
Fx PdAx g ydAx ghC Ax
A x is the projection of the sphere along the x direction
2m R=0.5 m
and it has a shape of a circle A x = (0.5) 2 0.785( m 2 )
Fx (1000)(9.8)(2)(0.785) 15386( N )

Fz PdAz g zdAz g g ( )

(1000)(9.8) 1
2
4 R 3 2564( N )
3
z
r r r r r
F Fx i Fz k 15386i 2564k
The line of action of the force
equals minus must go through the center of the
hemisphere, O (why?)
Line of Action
Horizontal direction: line of action goes through z
zC
z Projection
R 4
in x-direction
I xx 4
z ' zC (2)
AzC R 2 (2)
2.03125( m)
Vertical direction: the line of action is 3R/8 z
away from the center of the hemisphere

## The resultant moment of both forces with respect to the

center of the hemisphere should be zero:
Fx(2.03125-2)-Fz(0.1875)
=15386(0.03125)-2564(0.1875)=0

## location of the centroid for a hemisphere

is 3R/8=0.1875(m) away from the equator plane