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Hydrostatic Forces on Curved, Submerged Surfaces

Pressure is always acting
Pz perpendicular to the solid surface
P since there is no shear motion in
static condition.
r r r
Z P=Pcos( ) i+Psin( )j
Integrate over the entire surface
r r r r
dF=dFx i dFz j PdA
r r
(Pcos( ) i+Psin( )j)dA
dA =dAcos()
x dFx PdA cos( ) PdAx
dFz PdA sin( ) PdAz
Projected Forces
dFx PdA cos( ) PdAx , dFZ PdA sin( ) PdAZ
Integrate over the entire surface:
Fx dFx PdAx ghdAx , Fz dFz PdAz ghdAz
Fz g hdAz g
h where is the fluid volume enclosed
between the curved surface and the
dAz free surface. The force is equal to the
weight of the total colume of fluid
Integrated over directly above the curved surface.
all elements
The line action passes through the
center of gravity of the volume
of liquid being displaced.

Force acting down FD= gV1


Buoyancy = FU-FD
V: volume occupied by the object

Force acting up FU = gV2

Horizontal Forces
h Fx dFx PdAx ghdAx

area Ax dAz Finding Fx is to determine the force acting
on a plane submerged surface oriented
Z perpendicular to the surface. Ax is the
Integrated over projection of the curved surface on the yz
all elements plane. Similar conclusion can be made to
the force in the y direction Fy.

dAx Fx dFx PdAx ghdAx

Equivalent system:
A plane surface perpendicular
to the free surface
Determine the magnitude of the resultant force acting on the hemispherical surface.

Fx PdAx g ydAx ghC Ax
A x is the projection of the sphere along the x direction
2m R=0.5 m
and it has a shape of a circle A x = (0.5) 2 0.785( m 2 )
Fx (1000)(9.8)(2)(0.785) 15386( N )

Fz PdAz g zdAz g g ( )

(1000)(9.8) 1
4 R 3 2564( N )
r r r r r
F Fx i Fz k 15386i 2564k
The line of action of the force
equals minus must go through the center of the
hemisphere, O (why?)
Line of Action
Horizontal direction: line of action goes through z
z Projection
R 4
in x-direction
I xx 4
z ' zC (2)
AzC R 2 (2)
2.03125( m)
Vertical direction: the line of action is 3R/8 z
away from the center of the hemisphere

The resultant moment of both forces with respect to the

center of the hemisphere should be zero:

location of the centroid for a hemisphere

is 3R/8=0.1875(m) away from the equator plane