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Operation of

IP Data Networks
Muhamad Anugrah Hadiyana

Bandung, 21 Maret 2015 Telkom POLBAN


Operation of IP Data Networks

Operation of IP Data Networks


Recognize the purpose and functions of various

network devices such as Routers, Switches, Bridges


and Hubs.
Select the components required to meet a given

network specification.
Identify common applications and their impact on

the network
Describe the purpose and basic operation of the

protocols in the OSI and TCP/IP models.


Predict the data flow between two hosts across a

network.
What is a network?
Network, a way to
communicate each other..
Common phisycal component
of a network
Interpreting a Network
Diagram
Resources Sharing Functions
and Benefits
Devices

Layer Layer
1 2
Layer
3
Layer 1 Devices

Layer 1 provides the physical media and its encoding.


Examples:
Ethernet
Serial
Repeater/Hub
Physical interface of the NIC
Layer 2 Devices

Layer 2 devices provide an interface with the physical


media.
Examples:
NIC (Network Interface Card)
Bridge
Switch
Layer 2 Addressing

MAC address
Assigned to end devices
Layer 3 Devices and Their Function

The network layer provides connectivity and path


selection between two host systems.
In the host, this is the path between the data link
layer and the upper layers of the NOS.
In the router, it is the actual path across the
network.
Layer 3 Addressing

Each NOS has its own Layer 3 address format.


OSI uses an NSAP (Network Service Access
Point).
TCP/IP uses IP.
Collision Domain
A hub is considered a layer one device of the
OSI model; all it does is send packets out on
all ports including the port in which the
packet was receivedon. This causes a
collision domain because only one device can
transmitat time. This also shares the
bandwidth of all devices connected to that
collision domain. These devices can
inefficiently use that bandwidth because of
the CSMA/CD and jamming signals that occur
when a collision happens.
Collision Domain
A switch uses layer two of the OSI model, so the switch
uses MAC addressesto send the packet to the correct
device. Rather than sending it to all ports a switch only
sends the packet out one port, if it has the MAC
address in its MAC address table. If not the switch will
sendthe packet on all ports except for the port in
which the packet was receivedon. Switches
provideseparate collision domains on each port. This
provides dedicated bandwidth to that device. This also
allows simultaneous conversations between devices on
different ports. Each port can be operated at full-
duplex so the device can send and receive information
at the same time.
Broadcast Domain
A broadcast domainis like a collision domain, the definition of a broadcast
domain is a set of devices that if one device sends a broadcast frame all
other devices will receive that frame in the same broadcast domain. So if
devices are in the same IP networkthey will be able to receive a broadcast
message. Having a smaller broadcast domain can improve network
performance and improve against security attacks. The more PCsand
network devices connected to a single broadcast domain, the more
broadcast messages you will have. Remember a broadcast message goes to
every PC and network device. An example is when the router gets a packet
that is destinedto a host (192.168.1.124) on its Ethernet interface
(192.168.1.0/24 network) the router will send an ARP request saying who is
192.168.1.124? That packet will go to every PC on the network, each PC has
to look at the packet and then discard it if it is not 192.168.1.124. But only
be processed by the PC that is 192.168.1.124. So a broadcast message can
bejust like a collision domain and affect network performance. The only
devices that can block or not send broadcast messages are routers because
they separate networks. Each interface on a router is a different network.
Example

Sumber : http://ciscoskills.net/2011/03/30/collision-domains-vs-broadcast-domains/broadcast-domain/
How many collision and
broadcast domain below :
Component Element
Design
Devices
IP Allocation
Media Transmission (Serial/Eth)
Impact of User Application on
the Network
Batch applications
FTP, TFTP, inventory updates
No direct human interaction
Bandwidth important, but not critical
Interactive applications
Inventory inquiries, database updates.
Human-to-machine interaction.
Because a human is waiting for a
response, response time is important
but not critical, unless the wait
becomes excessive.
Real-time applications
VoIP, video
Human-to-human interaction
End-to-end latency critical
Understanding Host-to-Host
Communications

Older model
Proprietary
Application and combinations software controlled
by one vendor
Standards-based model
Multivendor software
Layered approach
Why a Layered Network
Model?
Reduces complexity
Standardizes interfaces
Facilitates modular
engineering
Ensures interoperable
technology
Accelerates evolution
Simplifies teaching and
learning
The Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The Seven Layers of the OSI Model
(Cont.)
The Seven Layers of the OSI Model
(Cont.)
The Seven Layers of the OSI Model
(Cont.)
The Seven Layers of the OSI Model
(Cont.)
The Seven Layers of the OSI Model
(Cont.)
The Seven Layers of the OSI Model
(Cont.)
Data Encapsulation
Data De-Encapsulation
Peer-to-Peer Communication
TCP/IP Stack

Defines four layers


Uses different names for
Layers 1 through 3
Combines Layers 5
through 7 into single
application layer
TCP/IP Stack vs. the OSI
Model
ARP (Address Resolution
Protocol)
ARP Table
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (1 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (2 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (3 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (4 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (5 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (6 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (7 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (8 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (9 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (10 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (11 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (12 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (13 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (14 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (15 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (16 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (17 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (18 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (19 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (20 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (21 of 22)
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (22 of 22)
Referensi :

Cisco training material


THANK YOU