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ADAPTIN

G
MATERIA
LS
Researchers estimates of the
percentage of classroom time
allocated totextbook-use
20% 50-80%

Richards &
Ravelonanaha
Mahoney,
ry, 2007
1996

Jazady, 2003 Jazady, 2003

all or most of
67% the time
Teachers use of
coursebooks
Why
?

adapt / When
How? supplem
ent ?

What
?
Adaptation: Defining
adaptation
Why should Cousebooks are written for everyone and
therefore no one. Adaptation is thus an
attempt to tailor materials so that they are
we adapt? a better match for a specific learning
context.

What should Anything (language, level, context, content,


procedure)

we adapt?
How should By omitting, adding or changing.

we adapt?
When Adaptation can be a part of lesson

should we planning (proactive) or an instinctive


response while a lesson is in progress
(reactive).
adapt?
Teachers reasons for adapting and
supplementing their coursebooks

Our coursebooks need adapting and supplementing to


become more ...

involving
interesting
challenging
varied
manageable
straightforward
culturally appropriate
Adaptation: When?

proacti reactiv
ve e
even a planned spontane
planned
adaptation may be ous
adjusted in response adaptatio
adaptatio
to the dynamics of n
n
the classroom

experienced teachers
less adapt & supplement
experience
experience more, are more flexible &
d teachers
d teachers more responsive to their
learners.
Confidence that
comes with experience?
Adaptation: What?
Foci of adaptation

Focus Specific example

Language Text simplification


Exercise rubrics
Examples

Process Activity procedure (e.g. forms of classroom


management or interaction)
Freedback procedure
Content Cultural content

Level Differentiation (exercises)


Simplification / complexification (texts /
activities)
Adaptation: How?
selectio Strictly speaking, selection is not a form of adaptation
since it implies use without change.
n and
omissio reject, censor, leave out, reduce, delete
n
addition extemporization
extension (i.e. more practice of the same kind)
expansion (increase in the length, depth or difficulty)
exploatation (creative use of the material in ways nor
intended by the writer)
branching (provision of alternatives to an existing
activity or different paths through the materials)

change replacement
rearrangement ( resequencing)
rewriting
simplification
localization
complexification
Procedures of materials adaptation

omission

addition

Options for materials


reduction

adaptation
extension

rewriting/
modification

replacement

re-ordering

branching
Supplementation
Sources of supplementary materials:

self-developed materials
realia
materials from magazines
brochures and pamphlets
newspapers
coursebooks other than those prescribed
supplementary skills books
supplementary grammar and vocabulary
practice books
material from the Internet
films
The teacher-adapter

Adaptation need not


involve a teacher in a great
deal of extra work. In fact,
the most natural form of
adaptation is
extemporisation, that is,
a spontaneous response on
the part of the teacher to a
problem or an opportunity
(e.g. the paraphrase of a
coursebook instruction).
Extemporisation is by its
very nature oral (though it
might include blackboard
ADAPTING
MATERIALS
The principle of
congruence
[] Effective adaptation
is a matter of achieving
congruence. The
principle of congruence
has of course an infinite
variety of applications;
the poet matches the
meter of his poem to his
theme; the composer
his . The farmer selects a
crop congruent with soil,
climate, and market; the
industrialist a product
compatible with his
physical plant and public
The principle of
congruence
The good teacher is likewise
constantly striving for
congruence among several
related variables: teaching
materials, methodology,
students, course objectives,
the target language and its
context, and the teachers
own personality and
teaching style. []
One of the most important
aspects of congruence is
achieving congruence
between the textbook
and the real world. A
second aim is to achieve
language situations that are
A Framework for
Adaptation
Materials evaluation and
adaptation

materia materia
ls ls
evaluati adaptat
on ion

materials adaptation should be based on the


results of materials evaluation
Level of materials
adaptation
This is ideally done before the language programme begins. After

comparing what is covered in a textbook and what is required by the


syllabus or examination, the teacher may find that certain areas or
even whole units of the book can be omitted, and certain contents
need to be supplemented. Macro adaptation is very important
Macro because it helps to avoid waste of time and energy of the teacher
adaptation and the students as well. It also helps the teacher to see in advance
what he or she needs to supplement so that he or she can keep an
eye on materials that could be used.
This could be reordering the activities, combining activities,
omitting activities, rewriting or supplementing exercise
material, etc. Unit adaptation helps to make the classroom
Adapting a
unit
teaching more smooth and cohesive. It also helps the
teacher to better fulfil the aims of a unit.

Occasionally an activity is regarded as valuable, but it is not


well-designed or it is not feasible in a particular class. If the
Adaptation teacher does not want to give up the activity, he or she
of specific
activities needs to adapt it.
Reasons for adapting:
You cant always get what you want

The most
important
reason for
adapting is that
there is a
mismatch
between what is
needed and
what is provided
Objectives / Purposes of materials
adaptation
The two most frequent purposes for
adaptation:

to make the
material more
suitable for the
circumstances in
which it is being
used

to compensate for
Principles
LOCALIZATION motivating
change
MODERNIZATIO

MOTIVATING CHANGE
N

INDIVIDUALIZAT
PRINCIPLES

ION

PERSONALIZATI
ON

HUMANIZING

SIMPLIFICATION /
COMPLEXIFICATION /
DIFFERENTIATION

VARIETY
Principles motivating change
Materials need to:

be perceived as relevant by LOCALIZATION


learners
be up-to-date MODERNIZATION
cater for differences in INDIVIDUALIZATION
learning styles
encourage learners to PERSONALIZATION
speak/write about
themselves and their own
experiences
engage the whole person HUMANIZING
be appropriate to learners SIMPLIFICATION /
level / offer an apprpriate COMPLEXIFICATION /
level of challenge DIFFERENTIATION
be varied VARIETY
The overview of the hypothetical changes to the unit
structure can be seen below:
Do a unit back-to-
front
Many coursebooks work through a
process of presentation, controlled
practice, and then production (or
activation).
This is of course a nice smooth way to
make language learning feel easy and
manageable. It also gets pretty old
pretty quickly, and can even
encourage the students to get hooked
on an approach whereby everything is
carefully provided for them before
they ever really have to take a risk
The sequence for the Boost! speaking unit above is:

1.Noticingparticular skills through an


example dialogue
2.Thinking about the skill and applying it
through controlled practice
3.Working on specific pronunciation skills
4.Working on discourse patterns and
sequences
5.Creating a dialogue with a partner and
hopefully putting some of the skills into
action
6.Integrating the new speaking skill with
other macro skills likereading, listening
Of course, if you do the unit in reverse order, it is going tobe
implemented as:

1. Doing a theme based integrated task


involving speaking,reading, listening and
writing
2. Creating a dialogue with a partner
anddemonstrating one's own awareness
and skills prior to any specific "teaching" of
skills
3. Working on discourse patterns and
sequences
4. Working on specific pronunciation skills
5. Doing some controlled practice with a skill
thatyou've
What hasn't been fully elaborated
effectively done here yet,isthen
turned the
thinking
regular about that skill
approach on its head, and created
6. more
Noticingparticular skills task-based
of a "deep end" through learners'
approach.
own previous efforts, supported now with an