You are on page 1of 25

UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

E443-BEng (Hons) Mechanical Engineering

Thermal Engineering 2 MECH (3014Y)


Lecturer: Dr Abdel Khoodaruth
Group Members:
ABIB ASHFAQ (1312412)
BADULLA MUHAMMAD TWAAHA (1311150)
KOONJUL MITRESH (1316355)
LOCHUN AATISH (1314117)
JUGGURNAUTH ASHVIN (1317559)
NUTHOO MOHAMMAD AJMAL (1318272)
PEERALLY SUHAYL (1314539)
SUJEEWON BABOO KIRTI KUMARSINGH (1313869)

Date Submitted: 23 OCT 2015


BOILING VS EVAPORATION
Boiling is a liquidtovapor phase change process just like
evaporation, but there are significant differences between the two.

Evaporation occurs at the Boiling, on the other hand , occurs


liquidvapor interface when at the solidliquid interface when a
the vapor pressure is less liquid is brought into contact with
than the saturation pressure a surface maintained at a
of the liquid at a given temperature Ts sufficiently above
temperature. the saturation temperature Tsat of
the liquid.

The boiling process is process is


Evaporation involves no characterized by the rapid
bubble formation or bubble formation of vapor bubbles.
motion.
POOL BOILING VS FLOW BOILING

Flow boiling (or forced


Boiling is called pool boiling
convection boiling) in the
in the absence of bulk fluid
presence of it the presence of
flow.
bulk fluid flow.
SUBCOOLED BOILING VS SATURATED
BOILING
Pool and flow boiling are further classified as subcooled boiling
or saturated boiling, depending on the bulk liquid temperature.

Boiling is said to be subcooled Saturated boiling occurs


when the temperature of the when the temperature of
main body of the liquid is below the liquid is equal to
the saturation temperature Tsat.
Tsat.
BOILING CURVE
CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT BOILING
REGIMES
NATURAL CONVECTION BOILING (TO POINT A ON BOILING CURVE)

1. The liquid is slightly superheated in this case and evaporates


when it rises to the free surface.
2. The fluid motion in this mode of boiling is governed by natural
convection currents, and heat transfer from the heating surface
to the fluid is by natural convection.
3. No bubbles are formed on the heating surface.
CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT BOILING
REGIMES
NUCLEATE BOILING (BETWEEN POINTS A AND C)

1. The first bubbles start forming at point A of the boiling curve. The
bubbles form at an increasing rate at an increasing number of
nucleation sites as we move along the boiling curve towards point C.
2. The nucleate boiling regime can be separated into two distinct
regions. In region A-B, isolated bubbles are formed at various
preferential nucleation sites on the heated surface. But these bubbles
are dissipated in the liquid shortly after they separate from the
surface.
3. In region B-C, the heater temperature is further increased, and
bubbles form at such great rates at such a large number of nucleation
sites that they form numerous continuous columns of vapor in the
liquid. These bubbles move all the way up to the free surface, where
they break up and release their vapor content.
CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT BOILING
REGIMES
TRANSITION BOILING (BETWEEN POINTS C AND D)

1. As the heater temperature and thus Texcess is increased past


point C, the heat flux decreases.

2. This is because a large fraction of the heater surface is


covered by a vapor film, which acts as an insulation due to
the low thermal conductivity of the vapor relative to that of
the liquid.
CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT BOILING
REGIMES
FILM BOILING (BEYOND POINT D)

1. In this region the heater surface is completely covered by a


continuous stable vapor film. Point D, where the heat flux
reaches a minimum, is called the Leidenfrost point.

2. The presence of a vapor film between the heater surface


and the liquid is responsible for the low heat transfer rates
in the film boiling region.
FILM BOILING VS NUCLEATE
BOILING

the heater surface is completely covered by a continuous stake vapor film. Heat
transfer is by combined convection and radiation. In the nucleate boiling regime, the
heater surface is covered by the liquid. The boiling heat flux in the stable film boiling
regime can be higher or lower than that in the nucleate boiling regime, as can be seen
from the boiling curve
Burnout Point
From the boiling curve Fig1, the burnout point in
the curve is point C. The burnout during boiling is
caused by the heater surface being blanketed by
a continuous layer of vapor film.
However, the surface temperature that
corresponds to point E is beyond the melting
point of most heater materials, and burnout
occurs.

The burnout point is avoided in the design of


boilers as a safety in order to avoid the disastrous
explosions of the boilers.
Methods of enhancing pool boiling heat
transfer permanently

P ool boiling heat transfer can be increased permanently by increasing the number
of nucleate sites on the heater surface by coating the surface with a thin layer
(much less than 1 mm) of very porous material.

Or by forming cavities on the surface mechanically to facilitate continuous vapor


formation. Such surface are reported to enhance heat transfer in the nucleate
boiling regime by a factor of up to 10, and the critical heta flux by a factor of 3.

The use of finned surface is also known to enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer
and the critical heat flux .
The different boiling regimes that occur in a vertical tube during flow boiling are:

Forced convection of liquid


Bubbly flow
Slug flow
Annular flow
Transition flow
Mist flow
Forced convection of vapor
Assumptions:.Steady state,Constant properties,Heat losses from the heater and the pan are negligible.

The properties of water at the saturation temperature of 100C is = 0.0589 N/m (Table 101) and, from Table A9,

0.6

for the boiling of water on a mechanically polished stainless steel surface(Table 103).

The excess temperature = 110 100 = 10C which is in the range of 5-30C, therefore nucleate boiling will occur.


The heat flux in this case can be determined from the Rohsenow relation to be
= [
=( x [: 140.8 x
The surface area of the bottom of the pan is: = 0.049087
= A = 0.049087 (140.8 x ) = 6911 W
The rate of evaporation of water is determined from : = = 3.062 kg/s

question 10.
Assumptions:
Steady state
Constant properties
Heat losses from the heater and the coffee maker are negligible.
The properties of water at the saturation temperature of 100C (Table 101) and, from Table
A9,

0.6

= 0.0589 N/m
for the boiling of water on a mechanically polished stainless steel surface(Table 103).

Mass of water of 1L at 18C = 1kg


Hence evaporated mass of water =0.5kg
= = 3.33 kg/s

= 3.33)
=752.33 W

Therefore the power rating of the coffee maker should be higher than that calculated above
around 800W.
A =
The heat flux is:
= = 29,940
Using Rohsenow relationship assume it is a nucleate boiling
= [
29,940=( x [

Solve for
Therefore

Hence the nucleate boiling assumption is valid since the excess temperature is in the required range.

Time taken for the heater to raise the temperature of 1 L of cold water from 18C to the boiling temperature is by using the equation below

=
= 456 s
=7.60 min
Question 11.
Assumptions:
Steady state
Constant properties
Heat losses from the heater and the vessel are negligible.

The properties of water at the saturation temperature of 120C (Table 101) and, from Table A9,

1.121

= 0.0550 N/m
for the boiling of water on a brass surface(Table 103).

The excess temperature = 125 120 = 5C which is in the range of 5-30C, therefore nucleate boiling will occur.
= [
=( x [
=290,334
The surface area is:
A =
The rate of heat transfer during nucleate boiling becomes
=A
= 0.04084* 290334
=11857 W

Highest rate of steam production = rate of evaporation


= = 0.0053823 kg/s
= 0.0053823*3600 kg/h

=19.4kg/h
Question 12.
Assumptions:
Steady state
Constant properties
Heat losses from the pan is negligible
The boiling regime is nucleate boiling
The properties of water at the saturation temperature of 100C is = 0.0589 N/m (Table 101) and, from Table A9,

0.6

= = =

= * = 3773 W

The surface area of the bottom of the pan is


= = 0.03142

The heat flux in this case is:


= = = 120 098

= [
120 098 = ( x [
We solve for

Therefore the nucleate boiling assumption is valid since th

therefore, the nucleate boiling assumption is valid since the excess temperature is in the required range.
Question 13.
Assumptions:
Steady state
Constant properties
Heat losses from the pan is negligible
The excess temperature = 165 150= 15C which is in the range of 5-30C, therefore nucleate boiling
will occur.

The properties of water at the saturation temperature of 150C (Table 101) and, from Table A9,

2.55
= 0.0488 N/m
for the boiling of water on a mechanically polished stainless steel surface(Table 103).

= [
=( x [
= 1,383,000
The surface area is:

A =
Rate of heat transfer
= A = 7.854(1383000)= 10,865,000 W
(b) Rate of evaporation
= = 5.139 kg/s

Determination of coefficient of

= = 10.71

Since 1.2 it thus large horizontal cylinder from table(10-4)


Thus = 0.12
Critical heat flux(maximum)

=0.12()[0.0488*9.81*(9.16.6 2.55)
Surface temperature of the pipe at critical heat flux

= [
1852000=( x [

= 166.5C