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ASME AWARENESS

PROGRAM -6

DESIGN

4/13/17 1
WHAT IS A PRESSURE VESSEL ?

Pressure Vessel is a container for the containment of


pressure, either internal or external.
This pressure may be obtained from an external source, or by
The application of heat from a direct or indirect source, or
any combination thereof.

Classification based on
Function
- Storage Tank, Process vessel, Heat Exchanger
Geometry
- Cylindrical, Spherical, Conical, Non-circular,
Horizontal/vertical
Construction
- Monowall, Multiwall, Forged, Cast
Service
- Cryogenic, Steam, Lethal, Vacuum, Fired/Unfired,
Stationary/Mobile
PARTS OF PRESSURE VESSEL

DISH END (Blank diameter, Petal size, Nominal thickness)


Types (Spherical, Conical, Elliptical, Torispherical)
SHELL (TL to TL, WL to WL, Straight Face)
Cladding of shell and nozzles
NOZZLE (Forged, Fabricated)
TRAY SUPPORT RINGS, BOLTING BARS, DOWN- COMER
NOZZLE REINFORCEMENT PADS
EXTERNAL ATTACHMENTS (Ladder, Pipe cleats)
LUGS (for Earthing, Lifting, Tailing)
SADDLE SUPPORT / SKIRT SUPPORT
PIPE or MANWAY DAVIT
LADDER RUNGS
INTERNALS (Demister, Vortex breaker, Deflector etc)
NAME PLATE & ASME STAMPS
Design considerations
FOLLOWING LOADINGS TO BE CONSIDERED IN DESIGNING THE
VESSELS AS PER ASME SEC. VIII DIV. I ( CLAUSE UG-22)

1. INTERNAL DESIGN PRESSURE AT DESIGN TEMPRATURE.


2. EXTERNAL DESIGN PRESSURE AT DESIGN TEMPRATURE.
3. WEIGHT OF THE VESSEL AT OPERATING AND TEST CONDITION.
4. LOAD DUE TO ATTACHED EQUIPMENTS.
5. WELD JOINT EFFICIENCY.
6. EXTERNAL / INTERNAL ATTACHMENT
7. SEISMIC LOADING.
8. WIND LOADING.
9. FATIGUE LOADING DUE TO THERMAL AND PRESSURE VARIATIONS.
10. CORROSION ALLOWANCES.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Following Loadings to be Considered Loadings to be


considered in Designing the Vessels as per ASME SEC. VIII
DIV. I ( CLAUSE UG - 22):

(a) Internal or External Design pressure


(b) Weight of the vessel and normal contents under operating or test
conditions (This includes additional Pressure due to static head of
liquids);
(c) Superimposed static reactions from weight of attached
equipment, such as motors, machinery, other vessels, piping,
linings, and insulation;
(d) The attachment of:
(1) internals (see Appendix D);
(2) vessel supports, such as lugs, rings, skirts, saddles, and legs
(see Appendix G);
(e) Cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations,
or from equipment mounted on a vessel, and mechanical loadings;
(f) Wind, snow, and seismic reactions, where required;
(g) Impact reactions such as those due to fluid shock;
(h) Temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion.
G.A. DRAWING- ELEVATION
ASME SEC VIII DIV 1
COVERS THE DESIGN OF PRESSURE COMPONENTS AS LISTED BELOW
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. UG-27 ----- THK OF SHELLS UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE
2. UG-28 ----- THK OF SHELLS UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE
3. UG-29 -----STIFFENING RINGS OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS UNDER
EXTERNAL PRESSURE
4. UG-32 & 33 ---- FORMED HEAD , COVERS ELLIPSOIDAL, TORISHERICAL,
HEMISHERICAL, CONICAL & TORICONICAL HEADS.
5. UG-34 ---- UNSTAYED FLAT HEADS & COVERS
6. UG-36 & 37 ---- OPENING IN PRESSURE VESSELS & REINFORCEMENTS
7. UG-41 ---- STRENGTH OF REINFORCEMENTS
8. UG -47 ----- BRACED & STAYED SURFACE
9. UG 53 LIGAMENT
10. UW-12 & 15 WELD EFFICIENCY & WELDED CONNECTION DESIGN
11. UCS -56 REQUIRMENT OF PWHT
12. UG -99 & 100 HYDROTEST & PNUMATIC TEST REQUIREMENT
13. APPENDIX 2 DESIGN OF BOLTED FLANGE CONNECTION]
14. APPENDIX 9 DESIGN OF JACKETED VESSEL
15. APPENDIX -13 DESIGN OF NON-CIRCULAR VESSEL
16. APPENDIX A - TUBE SHEET DESIGN
17. APPENDIX Y DESIGN OF FLAT FACE FLANGES
SHELL
SHELL IS THE MAIN PART OF THE VESSEL.
TYPES OF THE SHELL
1. CYLINDRICAL SHELL
2. SPHERICAL SHELL

DESIGN OF CYLINDRICAL SHELL UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE AS


PER ASME SEC-VIII DIV-1, CL. UG-27.

T = {(P x R) / (S x E - 0.6 x P)} + CA


WHERE, P = INT DESIGN PRESSURE ( N/sq.MM)
R = SHELL INSIDE RADIUS (MM)
S = ALLOWABLE STRESS OF THE MATERIAL AT DESIGN
TEMP. ( N/sq..MM) AS PER UG-23 & ASME SEC-II D
E= WELD JOINT EFFICIENCY
CA = CORROSION ALLOWANCES (MM)
T = MINIMUM SHELL WALL THICHNESS REQUIRED (MM)
FOR EXTERNAL DESIGN PRESSURE, SHELL TO BE DESIGN AS PER ASME SEC-VIII DIV-1
CL. UG-28
PLAN
SUPPORTS FOR VESSEL

SUPPORTS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE INSTALLATION OF THE VESSEL ON


THE FOUNDATION.

TYPE OF SUPPORTS
LEG TYPE SUPPORT
SKIRT TYPE SUPPORT (CYLINDRICAL/CONICAL) USING A D
MARKBLATTER
BRACKET TYPE SUPPORT
SADDLE SUPPORT THIS SUPPORT DESIGN USING ZICK ANALYSIS
SKIRT DETAIL
Detail of Skirt
HEADS / ENDCLOSURES
HEAD IS THE PART WHICH CLOSES THE END OPENING OF THE CYL. SHELL
TYPES OF THE HEADS :
1. HEMISPHERICAL HEAD
2. ELLIPTICAL HEAD
3. TORISPHERICAL HEAD
4. CONICAL HEAD
5. TORICONICAL HEAD
6. BOLTED BLIND FLANGE
DESIGN OF 2:1ELLIPTICAL HEAD UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE AS
PER ASME SEC-VIII DIV-1, CL. UG-32.

T = {(P x D) / (S x E - 0.2 x P)} + CA


WHERE, P = INT DESIGN PRESSURE ( N/sq..MM)
D = HEAD INSIDE DIA. (MM)
S = ALLOWABLE STRESS OF THE MATERIAL AT DESIGN
TEMP. ( N/sq...MM) AS PER UG-23 & ASME SEC II D
E= WELD JOINT EFFICIENCY
CA = CORROSION ALLOWANCES (MM)
T = MINIMUM HEAD WALL THICHNESS REQUIRED (MM)
FOR EXTERNAL DESIGN PRESSURE, HEAD TO BE DESIGN AS PER ASME SEC-VIII DIV-1
CL. UG-33
HEADS / END CLOSURES

HEAD IS THE PART WHICH CLOSES THE


END OPENING OF THE CYLINDRICAL
SHELL
TYPES OF THE HEADS:
BOLTED BLIND FLANGE
CONICAL HEAD
ELLIPTICAL HEAD
HEMISPHERICAL HEAD
TORICONICAL HEAD
TORISPHERICAL HEAD
HEADS / END CLOSURES (continued..)
NOZZLES / CONNECTIONS
NOZZLES ARE THE OPENINGS PROVIDED IN THE
SHELL / HEAD FOR CONNECTING THE EXTERNAL
PIPING WITH VESSEL.
NOZZLES CONSISTS OF NOZZLE NECK, FLANGE &
RF PAD
TYPES OF THE NOZZLES / CONNECTIONS :
PIPE NECK WITH FLANGE CONNECTION
FORGED NECK WITH FLANGE CONNECTION
STUB END CONNECTION
NOZZLE NECK TO BE DESIGNED AS PER ASME SEC
VIII DIV I CL. UG-45
RF PAD FOR THE NOZZLE TO BE DESIGNED AS PER
ASME SEC VIII DIV I CL. UG-36
NON STD. FLANGE TO BE DESIGNED AS PER ASME
SEC VIII DIV I, APPX-2 & STD FLANGE TO BE
SELECTED AS PER UG-44/ASME B16.5
Nozzle Details
Detail of Manhole
TSR Drawings
Support Cleats
Name Plate Detail
Shell Development
EQUIPMENT DESIGN IN PV-ELITE
INTERNAL PRESSURE
DESIGN

4/13/17 24
Thickness of shells under Internal
Pressure(UG-27)

All dimensions in code are in corroded condition


Provision for any loading

Symbols :
t = min. required thickness
P = internal design pressure
R = inside radius of shell
S = max. allowable stress value (Sec II D)
E = joint efficiency (UW-12)
Cylindrical Shells (UG-27)

1. Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joints).


t 0.5R, P 0.385SE

PR or SEt
t P
SE 0.6 P R 0.6t
2. Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints).
t 0.5R, P 1.25SE
or
PR 2 SEt
t P
2 SE 0.4 P R 0.4t
Relevant when additional loadings are applicable
Thickness Calculation based on
Outside diameter(Appendix 1-1)

1. Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joints).


PR0 SEt
t or P
SE 0.4 P R0 0.4t

Where R0= outside radius of shell


2. Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints).

PR0 or 2 SEt
t P
2 SE 1.4 P R0 1.4t
Spherical Shells (UG-27)

Stresses in biaxial direction are same.


t 0.356R, P 0.665SE

PR 2 SEt
t or P
2 SE 0.2 P R 0.2t
Based on Outside Diameter (Appendix 1-1)

PR0 or 2 SEt
t P
2 SE 0.8 P R0 0.8t
Where R0= outside radius of shell
Conical Shells Sections (UG-32)

= one half of the included (apex) angle of the


cone (<30)
D = inside diameter at point under consideration.
Do = outside diameter at point under
consideration(Appendix 1-4)

1. Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joints)


PD 2 SEt cos
t P
2 cos ( SE 0.6 P ) D 1.2t cos
or
PD0 2 SEt cos
t P
2 cos ( SE 0.4 P) D0 0.8t cos
or
Conical Shells Sections (UG-32)
(Continued)

2. Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints).

PD or 4 SEt cos
t P
4 cos ( SE 0.4 P) D 0.8t cos

PDor 4 SEt cos


t 0 P
4 cos ( SE 1.4 P ) D0 2.8t cos
Formed Heads

UG-32 Formed Heads


-Ellipsoidal
-Torispherical
-Hemispherical
-Conical
-Toriconical
Formed Heads (Continued)
Ellipsoidal Heads (UG-32) (Appendix 1-4)

t = minimum required thickness of head after forming


P = internal design pressure
D = inside diameter of the head skirt, or inside length
of the
major axis pf an ellipsoidal head
S = max. allowable stress value in tension (Sec II D)
E = lowest efficiency of any joint in the head
D0 = outside diameter of the head skirt, or outside
length of
the major axis of an ellipsoidal head
h = the inside depth of the ellipsoidal head measured
from the
tangent line
K = a factor in formulas for ellipsoidal heads depending
on the
head proportion D/2h
Ellipsoidal Heads (UG-32) (Appendix 1-4)

Table 1-4.1
Values of factor K
(Use nearest Values of D/2h; Interpolation
Unnecessary)
Ellipsoidal Heads (UG-32) (Appendix 1-4)
(Continued)
t/L 0.002
Inside Depth = Inside diameter

PD 2 SEt
t or P
2 SE 0.2 P D 0.2t
2:1 ellipsoidal Head-
Approximation: Knuckle Radius = 0.17D
Spherical Radius = 0.90D
Ellipsoidal Heads (UG-32) (Appendix
1-4)

(Continued)
t/L 0.002

PDK OR 2 SEt
t P
2 SE 0.2 P KD 0.2t

PD0 KOR 2 SEt


t P
2SE 2 P ( K 0.1) KD0 2t ( K 0.1)

1
2
Where D
K 2
6 2h
Torispherical Heads (UG-32) (Appendix 1-4)

t = min. required thickness of head after forming


P = internal design pressure
D = inside diameter of the head skirt,
S = max. allowable stress value in tension (Sec II D)
E = lowest efficiency of any joint in the head
r = Inside Knuckle Radius
L = inside spherical or crown radius
Do = outside diameter of the head skirt,
L0 = outside spherical or Crown radius
M = a factor in formulas for Torispherical heads
depending on
the head proportion L/r
Torispherical Heads (UG-32) (Appendix 1-4)
(Continued)

Table 1-4.2
Values of factor M
(Use nearest Values of L/r; Interpolation Unnecessary)
Torispherical Heads (UG-32) (Appendix 1-4)
(Continued)
t/L 0.002
Knuckle radius = 6% of inside crown radius
Inside crown radius = outside diameter of skirt

0.885 PL SEt
t or
P
SE 0.1P 0.885 L 0.1t
Where minimum tensile strength > 70,000 psi

Allowable Stress Value at Temprature


S 20000
Allowable Stress Value at Room Temprature
Torispherical Heads (UG-32) (Appendix 1-4)
(Continued)

PLM 2 SEt
t or P
2 SE 0.2 P LM 0.2t

PL0 Mor 2 SEt


t P
2 SE P ( M 0.2) ML0 t ( M 0.2)

Where
1 L
M 3
4 r
Hemispherical Heads (UG-32) (Appendix 1-4)

t 0.356L, P 0.665SE


PL 2 SEt
t or P
2 SE 0.2 P L 0.2t

L = inside spherical radius


Sample Problem
Design of Vertical Cylindrical Pressure Vessel for Internal
Pressure
Design Data
Design pressure :12 Kg/cmg
Design temperature : 250 C
Radiography : Spot
Corrosion Allowance : 3 mm
Material : SA 515 Gr. 70
Inside Diameter : 2500 mm
Tan to Tan length : 10000 mm
Liquid head/ density : 4000mm from bottom tan line/ 1200
Kg/cu.m

Calculate the Following :


Shell Thickness
Thickness of 2:1 ellipsoidal dished head
Thickness of Torispherical head with crown radius 2500 mm
and Knuckle radius 300 mm
Thickness of Hemispherical head
Sample Problem (Continued)
Shell Thickness as per UG-27[c] (Solution)
Design pressure P=12 Kg/cmg = 0.12 kg/mm
Corroded Inside radius R=1250mm
Corrosion Allowance C= 3 mm
Joint Efficiency E=0.85
Allowable stress S=
S for SA 515 Gr.70 at 482F (250C) is 20000
psi
(As per Section II D)
Now, 13 pound = 0.45359237 Kg
20 10 0.4536
S 14 .062 Kg / mm 2

( 25.4) 2

Total Pressure at Bottom Tan line P = Internal Pressure + Liquid


Pressure
Liquid Pressure = *g*h
kg m
47088 2

=m1200 secx2 9.81 x 4

= 47088 N/m
=47088/9.81x1000000 Kg/mm
= 0.0048 kg/mm
Sample Problem (Continued)

Required Thickness for Circumferential Stress


P= 0.1248 0.385SE=4.6 kg/mm (So condition
Satisfied)
PR 0.1248 1253
t C 3
SE 0.6 P (14.062 0.85 0.6 0.1248)

13.13 3
16.13mm

Required Thickness for Longitudinal Stress


P= 0.1248 1.25SE=14.94 kg/mm (So condition
PR
Satisfied) 0.1248 1253
t C 3
2 SE 0.4 P (2 14.062 0.85 0.4 0.1248)
6.512 3
9.512mm
Sample Problem (Continued)
2:1 Ellipsoidal head as per UG-32 (Solution)
Design pressure P=0.12 Kg/mm
Corroded Inside radius R=1253mm
Corrosion Allowance C= 3 mm
Joint Efficiency E=0.85
Allowable stress S= 14.062 kg/mm at 482F
(Sec-IID)
D 2500
h 3 3 628mm
Inside Depth 4 4

1 D 1 2506
2 2

K 2 2
Factor K 6 2h 6 2 628
1mm
Sample Problem (Continued)
Required Thickness at top
PDK
t C
2 SE 0.2 P
0.12 2506 1
3
2 14.062 0.85 0.2 0.12

15.59mm
Sample Problem (Continued)
Torispherical head as per UG-32 (Solution)
Design pressure P=0.12 Kg/mm
Corroded Inside Diameter D=2506mm
Corrosion Allowance C= 3 mm
Joint Efficiency E=0.85
Allowable stress S= 14.062 kg/mm at 482F
(Sec-IID)

Corroded Crown Radius L D (2500 mm)


Corroded Knuckle Radius r>6% of Inside Diameter
(consider r=300 mm)
1 L 1 2500
M 3


3
4 r 4 300
Factor M
1.47 mm
Sample Problem (Continued)

Torispherical head as per UG-32


(Solution) continued
Required thickness at top

PLM 0.12 2500 1.47


t C 3
2 SE 0.2 P 2 14.062 0.85 0.2 0.12
21.47mm
Sample Problem (Continued)
Hemispherical head as per UG-32 (Solution)
Design pressure at bottom P=12+[5.25*1.2/10]=0.1263
Kg/mm
Corroded Inside Diameter D=2506mm
Corrosion Allowance C= 3 mm
Joint Efficiency E=0.85
Allowable stress S= 14.062 kg/mm at 482F
(Sec-IID)
Corroded Crown Radius L=1253 (D/2)

Required thickness
PL 0.1263 1253
t C 3
2 SE 0.2 P 2 14.062 0.85 0.2 0.1263
9.63mm
Design for External Pressure
and compressive stresses
Compressive forces caused by dead weight, wind,
earthquake, internal vacuum
Can cause elastic instability (buckling)
Vessel must have adequate stiffness
Extra thickness
Circumferential stiffening rings
ASME procedures for cylindrical shells, heads, conical
sections. Function of:
Material
Diameter
Unstiffened length
Temperature
Thickness
Subsection B -
Requirements pertaining to methods of
Fabrication of Pressure Vessels
Part UW : Requirements for Pressure vessels
fabricated
by Welding
General UW-1 to UW-3
Materials UW-5
Design UW-8 to UW-21
Fabrication UW-26 to UW-42
Inspection and Tests UW-46 to UW-53
Markings and Reports UW-60
Pressure Relief Devices UW-65
Part UF : Requirements for Pressure vessel
fabricated by
Forging
Part UB : Requirements for Pressure vessel
fabricated by
Brazing
Part UW
UW-2 - Service Restrictions
(a) Lethal Service
(b) Low Temperature Service
(c) Steam Service
(d) Direct fired Service
(a) Lethal Service
- Vessels with lethal substances, all butt welds shall be full
radiographed.
CS/LAS vessels shall be post weld heat treated.
- It shall be responsibility of user to specify if vessel is for lethal
service.
- All category A joints shall be type (1)
- All category B & C joints shall be type (1) or (2)
- All category D shall be full penetration welds.
(b) Low Temperature Service
- All category A joints shall be type (1)
- All category B joints shall be type (1) or (2)
- All category C joints shall be full penetration welds.
- All category D shall be full penetration welds.
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-2 - Service Restrictions

(c) Unfired Steam Boilers


- All category A shall be type (1) and B shall be type (1) or
(2)
- All butt welds shall be radiographed
- CS/LAS vessels shall have PWHT

(d) Direct Fired Vessels


- All category A shall be type (1) and B above 16mm
thickness
type (1) or (2)
- CS above 16mm and LAS vessels shall have PWHT.
- Parts with other than type (1) & (2) welds subjected to radiation.
Design
temperature shall be maximum surface metal temp.
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-3 - Weld Joint Category
- Categories A, B, C and D
- Category defines the location of a joint in a vessel.
- Used for specifying
- type of joint
- degree of inspection
- Based on service, material and thickness, special requirements
are
specified in code
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-11 - Radiographic Examination
(a) Full Radiography
(1) All butt welds in shell & heads of vessels with lethal
service.
(2) All butt welds, where t>38 mm or exceeds lesser
thickness
specified elsewhere in code.
- Categories B and C butt welds in nozzles that neither
exceed
10 size nor 29 mm thickness, do not require
radiography.

(5) All category A and D butt welds with joint efficiency [of
full
radiography]
(a) Cat. A and B butt welds of vessel sections or
heads
shall be of type (1) or (2).
(b) Cat. B or C butt welds (not including those in
nozzles
except as required above) which intersect Cat.A
butt
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-11 - Radiographic Examination
(b) Spot Radiography
- Butt weld joints of type (1) or (2) which are not required to
be
fully radiographed.
-If spot radiography is specified for entire vessel,
radiography is
not required of Cat B and C butt welds in nozzles that
exceed
neither 10 size not 29 mm thickness

(c) No Radiography
- No radiography is required when vessel is designed for
external
pressure only or where joint efficiency is as per table UW-
12 (C)
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-12 - Joint Efficiency

- Values of E given in column (a) for fully radiographed butt


joints.
- When UW-11(a)(5) is not met, value of E will be as
given in (b)
- Value if E given in column (b) for spot radiographed butt
joints.
- Value if E given in column (c) for no radiography joints.
- Seamless vessel sections/heads
E = 1.0 when spot radiography requirements of UW-
11(a)(5)(b) are met.
E = 0.85 when above is not met, or when Cat A or B
welds are type 3, 4, 5 or 6.
Part UW (Continued..)
Part UW (Continued..)
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-13 Attachment Detail

Heads Attached to
Shells
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-13 Attachment
Detail

Heads Attached to
Shells (continued..)
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-13 Attachment
Detail

Heads Attached to
Shells (continued..)
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-13 Attachment
Detail

Attachments of
Pressure Parts to
flat plates
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-13 Attachment Detail
Attachments of Pressure Parts to flat plates
(Continued..)
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-13 Attachment Detail
Pressure Parts with butt welded hubs
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-16 Nozzle welded to shells
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-16 Nozzle welded to shells (continued)
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-16 Nozzle welded to shells (continued)
Part UW (Continued..)
UW-16 Nozzle welded to shells (continued)
Subsection C -Requirements pertaining
to Classes of Materials

Part UCS
Requirement for Pressure
Vessels
Constructed of
Carbon Steel and Low Alloy
Steels
Part UCS
UCS-23 Maximum Allowable Stress values:

-When design metal temp. is below -29C, allowable stress


value shall not exceed those given for 40 C
Part UCS (Continued)
POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT
UCS-56 POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT (PWHT):
OBJETCIVE:
- TO REDUCE THE RESIDUAL STRESSES AT WELD & HAZ
- TO MODIFY THE MICRO-STRUCTURE (HAZ)
EFFECT:
- SUSCETIBLITIES TO BRITTLE FAILURE
DECREASES.
- RESISTANCE TO STRESS CORROSION
CRACKING INCREASES.
- DIMENSIONAL STABILITIES INCREASES.
PWHT PARAMETER
- HEATING RATE
- SOAKING TEMPERATURE
- COOLING RATE
Part UCS (Continued)
UCS-56 PWHT
Part UCS (Continued)
UCS-56 PWHT
-Procedure
- Temp. of furnace shall not exceed 800F(425) at the
time of vessel placed
in it.
- Above 425C, rate of heating shall not be more
than 400F (222C)/hr,
divided by max. metal thickness of shell or head in
inches, but in no case
more than 222C/hr
- Variation in temp. shall not be more than 250F
(139C) within any 4.6m
interval, during heating.
- Variation in temp. shall not be more than
150F(83C) between highest
and lowest temp. throughout the vessel during
holding time.
- No direct impingement of flame on the vessel (to
control excessive
oxidation).
-Above 425C, rate of cooling shall not be more than
500F(278C)/hr
Part UCS (Continued)
UCS-56 PWHT
-General
- Rate of heating and cooling need not be less than
100F(38C)/hr
- Holding temp./holding time in excess of min. value
may be used.
- Intermediate PWHT need not confirm to table UCS-
56
- Holding time need not be continuous. It may be
addition of time of
multiple PWHT cycles.
- When P numbers are different, higher PWHT
temperature shall be
used.
- When non pressure part is welded to pressure
part, PWHT of pressure
part shall control.
-Exemptions given are not permitted when PWHT is
a service
requirement.
Part UCS (Continued)
Table UCS-56
Part UCS (Continued)
PWHT Requirements TABLE UCS-56
Part UCS (Continued)
PWHT Requirements TABLE UCS-56
Part UCS (Continued)
Table UCS-56.1
Part UCS (Continued)
UCS-57 -Radiographic Examination
-when thickness exceeds given in table, radiography
is required.
-Thickness of thinner plate is considered.
Part UCS (Continued)
Low Temperature Operations
UCS-66 -Materials
Unless otherwise exempted
Impact testing is required for a combination of MDMT and thickness,
which is
below the curve in fig. UCS-66.
Above the curve the Impact Testing is not required.

Impact Test
Exemption
Curve
Part UCS (Continued)
Low Temperature Operations
UCS-66 -Materials
-General Notes on Assignment of Materials to Curves:

(a) Curve A applies to


(1) All carbon and all low alloy steel plates, structural
shapes, and bars
not listed in Curve B, C and D below,

(b) Curve B applies to :


(1) SA-285 Grades A and B
SA-515 Grade 60
SA-516 Grades 65 and 70 if no normalized
(2) Except for cast steels, all materials of Curve A if
produced to fine
grain practice and normalized which are not listed in
Curve C and D
below,
(3) all pipe, fittings, forgings and tubing not listed for
Curve C and D below,
(4) parts permitted under UG-11 shall be included in Curve
B even when fabricated
from plate that otherwise would be assigned to a
different curve.
Part UCS (Continued)
Low Temperature Operations
UCS-66 -Materials
-General Notes on Assignment of Materials to Curves (continued)

(c) Curve C applies to


(1) SA-182 Grades 21 and 22 if normalized and tempered.
SA-302 Grades C and D
SA-336 F 21 and F 22 if normalized and tempered.
SA-387 Grades 21 and 22 if normalized and tempered.
SA-516 Grades 55 and 60 if not normalized.
SA-533 Grades B and C
(2) All material of Curve B if produced to fine grain practice
and normalized and not
listed for Curve D below.

(d) Curve D applies to :


SA-203
SA-508 Grade 1
SA-516 if normalized
SA-537 Classes 1, 2 and 3
Part UCS (Continued)
Low Temperature Operations
UCS-66 -Materials

-Coincident Ratio (UCS 66-1) where MDMT>-49C)


-When coincident ratio is less than 1, MDMT can be lower
than
desired above, in the procedure given in UCS-66.2
-When components are not stressed to allowable limit,
MDMT can be
lower.
-Lower MDMT
-When MDMT is between -48C and -105C and coincident
ratio is
less than 0.35, impact testing is not required.
- If PWHT is performed when not required by code, for P1
material, MDMT can be lower by 17C, even lower than
-48C
- In all other cases when MDMT is lower than -48C,
impact
testing is required.
Part UCS (Continued)
Reduction in
MDMT
Without
Impact
Testing
SOUR SERVICE REQIREMENTS:
This shall be in accordance with NACE Standard MR-01-75 and
shall meet the following special requirements for CS Material.
All steel shall be fully killed and fine grained.
All steel shall be produced using Basic oxygen or
Electro Furnace Process.
Steel shall be made by low sulphur and low
phosphorous refining process and shall be
vacuum degassed while molten by means of an
approved procedure.
Effective sulfide shape control by calcium
treatment, if the sulphur level is in excess of
0.002%.
HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING (HIC)
TESTING:
This shall be carried out on finished product of each heat
irrespective of size/thickness as per NACE-TM-02-84 standards.
The test shall be performed on a set of three test
specimens. The test shall be performed, as per NACE-TM-
02-84 and the acceptance criteria shall be as Crack
sensitivity ratio (CSR) < 0.009% & Crack Length Ratio (CLR)
< 10.00%
In case any one of the above samples fails to meet
the acceptance criteria, three more additional
specimen from the product from which the first set
of specimen were taken, shall be retested and
results reported.
In case of failure of any of the samples in above, two
additional products shall be selected from the same heat
and size specimens shall be tested (three from each
product).
In case of failure of any one of the six-samples, the
particular heat will be rejected.
SULPHIDE STRESS CORROSION CRACKING
(SSCC) TEST:

This test shall be carried out on one finished


product as well as on raw material of each heat
(material wise and type of construction wise i.e.
seamless and welded separately) irrespective of
size/thickness. The test shall be carried out as per
NACE-TM-01-77
Reporting of test result: Curve shall be reported
as per NACE-TM-01-77 for various stress level
between 72%and 90% of SMYS.
Acceptance Criteria: At72%SMYS, time of failure
shall not be less than 720 hrs.
INTERGRANULAR CORROSION
(IGC)TEST:

The test shall be carried out for all Stainless Steel


material, as per ASTM A 262 Practice E . The bend
test specimen shall be examined at a magnification
of 200x. This test shall be carried out on finished
product as well as on each heat irrespective of size
& thickness. The entire test reports shall be from
the product specimen drawn from the heat bearing
same number.
TESTING
ALL BUTT JOINTS TO BE RT / UT / MPT / DP TESTED AS PER ASME CODE
REQUIREMENT
ALL CORNER JOINTS e.g. NOZZLE TO SHELL JOINT SHALL BE MPT /
DP TESTED
ALL FILLET WELDS SHALL BE DP TESTED
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR NDT REQUIREMENT FOR WELD JOINT
FOR R.T ----- APPENDIX IV - ASME SEC. VIII DIV.1
FOR M.P.T ------ APPENDIX VI
FOR D.P.T ------ APPENDIX VIII
FOR U.T --------- APPENDIX XII
TESTING
EQUIPMENT TEST :

HYDROTEST -- 1.3 x DESIGN PRESSURE (UG - 99)


PNEUMATIC TEST --- 1.1 x DESIGN PRESSURE (UG - 100)

OFFICIAL STAMP FOR CODED VESSELS

U STAMPS --- ASME SEC. VIII DIV.1


UV STAMPS --- FOR PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
PREHEATING REQUIREMENT
PREHEATING REDUCES THE SUSCEPTIBILTY OF THE
WELDMENT TO COLD CTACKING /HYDROGEN CRACKING
PREHEATING REQUIREMENTS DEPENDING ON THE
CARBON EQUIVALENT (CE)
CE % SUGGESTED TEMP
UP TO 0.45 % OPTIONAL
0.45 % TO 0.60 % 200-400 F
ABOVE 0.60 % 400 700 F
EFFECT OF PREHEATING :
1. ELIMINATES THE DANGER OF CRACK FORMATION
2. MINIMIZES HARD ZONE ADJACENT TO WLED
3. MINIMIZES THE SHRINKAGE STRESS
4. MINIMIZES THE DESTORTION
PREHEATING CODE
REQUIREMENT
MATERIAL GROUPS MINIMUM
PREHEATING
(P NUMBER) TEMPERATURE
(F)

P-1 (CS) 175


P-3 (LOW ALLOY STEEL ) 250
P-6 (MARTENSITIC SS) 400
P-7 (FERRITIC SS) NONE
& P-8 (AUSTENITIC SS)

THIS IS AS PER ASME CODE SEC IX


POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT

OBJETCIVE:
1.TO REDUCE THE RESIDUAL STRESSES AT WELD &
HAZ
2.TO MODIFY THE MICRO-STRUCTURE (HAZ)

EFFECT:
1. SUSCETIBLITIES TO BRITTLE FAILURE
DECREASES.
2. RESISTANCE TO STRESS CORROSION
CRACKING INCREASES.
3. DIMENSIONAL STABILITIES INCREASES.

PWHT PARAMETER
1. HEATING RATE
2. SOAKING TEMPERATURE
3. COOLING RATE
PWHT CODE REQUIREMENT

MATERIAL HOLDING TEMP. (F) MIN HOLDING


TIME
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
P-1,3,4 1100-1250 1.0 Hr/inch
(CS & LAS)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
P-6 1250-1400 1.0Hr/inch
(Martensitic SS)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
P-8 PWHT neither required nor
prohibited
(Austenitic SS)
REQUIREMENT OF PRODUCTION
CONTROL TESTING- PTC REQUIREMENT

PTC SIMULATES THE ACTUAL WELD JOINT WITH THE BASE


MATERIAL & WELDING CONSUMABLES FROM THE SAME
HEAT & MELT AS THOSE USED IN ACTUL JOINT.
THE PTC UNDERGOES IDENTIAL FABRICATION SEQUENCE,
DONE BY THE SAME WELDERS, SAME WELDING
PARAMETERS WITH SAME CONSTAINTS SIMULATED AS
THAT OF JOB.
TYPES OF PRODUCTION TEST COUPONS
1. THE SMULATED WELD COUPON STC
2. THE FINAL TEST COUPON FTC
STC THIS IS BASICALLY THE TEST COUPON OF THE WELD
JOINT, WHICH IS SUBJECTED TO THE SIMULATED HEAT
TREATMENT CYCLE, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT OF ALL
POSSIBLE EVANTUALITIES LIKE REPAIRE, ADDITIONAL
HEAT TREATMENT ETC.
FTC THIS IS BASICALLY THE TEST COUPON OF THE
WELDMENT, WHICH IS SUBJECTED TO THE ACTUAL HAET
TREATMENT SEEN IN THE JOB. THIS COUPON IS MADE
SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH THE JOB.
HYDRO & PNUMATIC TESTING OF PRESSURE VESSEL
HYDROTESTING IS TO DONE AS PER ASME SEC VIII DIV-1-CL UG-99

HYDROTEST PRESSURE =
1.3 X (P design) x (allow stress at test temp/ allow stress at
design temp)

HYDROTEST STRESS SHOULD NOT EXCCED 90 % OF THE YIELD STRESS


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PNUMTAIC TESTING IS TO BE DONE AS PER ASME SEC VIII DIV 1 CL UG100

PNUMATIC TETSING IS CARRIED OUT FOR FOLLOWING VESSELS


1. THE VESSELS THAT ARE SO SUPPORTED OR DESIGNED SUCH
THAT THEY CAN NOT BE SAFTY FILLED WITH WATER.
2. NOT READILY DRIED, THAT ARE TO BE USED IN THE SERVICES
WHERE TRACE OF THE TESTING MEDIUM CANNOT BE TOLERATED.

PNUMATIC TEST PRESSURE = 1.1 X DESIGN PRESSURE

THE METAL TEMPERATURE DURING PNUMATIC TESTING SHALL BE MAINTAINED


ATLEAT 17 DRG C ABOVE THE MDMT TO MINIMISE THE RISK OF BRITTLE FRACTURE.
MATERIAL
FOR
PRESSURE VESSELS

4/13/17 100
Material Selection Criteria
Service media
- Corrosive-sea water, urea
- H2, H2S, Ammonia
Temperature
- Cryogenic
- Low temperature
- Medium temperature
- High temperature
Pressure
- Low pressure
- High pressure Q & T material
Standard
- Material specification
- Additional requirements
Economy
- Cost
- Availability
- Weldability
- Manufacturability
Material Selection for
Temperature

SERVICE PRESSURE
PLATE PIPE FORGING
TEMPERATURE (F) BOLTING

C SA 240 types SA 312 SA 182


R (-425) (-321) 304, 304l, 347 types grades Bolts: SA 320
Y 304,304l, F304, gr. B8 strain.
O 347 F304L, F347 Hardened
G Nuts: SA 194
E SA 240 types SA 312 SA 182 gr.8 (S5 SA 20)
N 304, 340L, types 304, grades
I (-320) (-151)
316, 316L 304L, 316, F304,
C SA 353 316L F304L, F316
Material Selection for Temperature (Continued)

PRESSURE
SERVICE PLATE PIPE FORGING BOLTING
TEMPERATURE (F)

(-150) (-76) SA 203 GR.D OR E SA 333 GR.3 SA 350 GR.


LF3

BOLTS: SA
L (-75) (-51) SA 203 GR.A OR B SA 333 GR.3 SA 350 GR.
320 GR.L7
O LF3
NUTS: SA 194
W
GR.4
(-50) (-21) SA 516 ALL SA 333 GR.1
T GRADES IMPACT
E TESTED
M
P
E (-20) (+4) SA 516 ALL
R GRADES OVER 1
A IN. THICK IMPACT SA 350 GR.
T TESTED LF1 OR LF2 BOLTS: SA
U SA 53
193 GR.B7
R (SEAMLESS)
NUTS: SA 194
E OR SA 106
(+5) (+32) SA 516 ALL GR.2H
GRADES OVER 1
IN. THICK IMPACT
TESTED
Material Selection for Temperature
(Continued)

SERVICE PRESSURE
PLATE PIPE FORGING
TEMPERATURE (F) BOLTING

SA 285 GR.C,
IN. THK. MAX.
SA 515 GR.55,
60, 65, 1.5IN.
(+33) (+60)
I THK. MAX.
N SA 516 ALL
T GRADES, ALL
E THK.
R SA 53 SA 181
M Bolts: SA 193
(SEAM GR.I OR II
E gr. B7
SA 285 GR.C, LESS) OR SA 105
D Nuts: SA 194
IN. THK. MAX. SA 106 GR.I OR 11
I gr. 2H
SA 515 GR.55,
A 60, 65, 1.5IN.
T THK. MAX.
E (+61) (+775)
SA 516 ALL
GRADES, ALL
THK.
SA 204 GR.B
ALL
Material Selection for Temperature (Continued)

PRESSURE
SERVICE PLATE PIPE FORGING BOLTING
TEMPERATURE (F)

(+776) (+875) SA 204 GR.B OR SA 335 GR.P1 SA 182


E C GR.F1
L BOLTS: SA
E 193 GR.L7
V (+876) (+1000) SA 387 GR.11 SA 335 P11 SA 182 GR. NUTS: SA
A CL1 SA 335 P12 F11 194 GR.2H
T SA 387 GR.12 SA 182 GR.
E CL.1 F12
D

(+1000) (+1100) SA 387 GR.22 SA 335 P22 SA 193


T SA 182
CL1 GR.B5
E GR.22
SA 194 GR.3
M
P
E
R (+1100) (+1500) SA 240 TYPES SA 182
A 304, 316, 321, SA 312 TYPES GRADES SA 193
T 347, 304H, 316H, 304H, GR.B8
U 347PREFERED 312, 347H 316H, SA 194 GR.8
R 321H, 347H
E

ABOVE +1500 TYPE 310


STAINLESS
INCOLOY
MATERIAL TYPES

Plates, sheets and strips


Pipes
Tubes
Flanges & fittings
Structural
Bars
Bolting materials
forgings
Welding materials
ASME
MATERIALS

4/13/17 107
ASME Section II -Materials

Part A - Ferrous material specifications


Part B - Non ferrous material
specifications
Part C - Specifications for welding
rods,
electrodes, and filler metals.
Part D - Properties (customary)
Properties (metric)
Section II Part A
Ferrous Material Specification

Types

Steel plates, sheets and strips for pressure vessels


Steel pipes
Steel tubes
Steel flanges & fittings
Structural Steel
Steel bars
Steel Bolting materials
Steel forgings
Corrosion-resisting and Heat-resisting steels
Steel Plates
SA-20 General Requirements for Steel plates for
Pressure Vessels
SA-203 Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy steel, Nickel
SA-204 Pressure Vessel plates, Alloy steel,
Molybdenum
SA-240 Chromium and Chromium-Nickel
Stainless steel
Plate, for Pressure vessel
SA-263 Corrosion-Resisting chromium steel-clad
plate
SA-264 Stainless Chromium-Nickel-Steel Clad
Plate
SA-265 Nickel and Nickel- Base Alloy Clad Steel
Plate
SA-285 Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel
SA-302 Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel,
Manganese-
Molybdenum
SA-387 Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel,
Chromium-
Steel Plates
SA-480 General Requirements for Flat-Rolled Stainless
Steel
Plate
SA-515 Pressure vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for
Intermediate
and Higher Temperature Service
SA-516 Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for
Moderate and
lower Temperature Service
SA-517 Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, High
Strength,
Quenched and Tempered
SA-533 Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenched
And
Tempered, Manganese-Silicon Steel
SA-537 Pressure Vessel Plates, Heat Treated, Carbon-
Manganese-Silicon Steel
SA-542 Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy steel, quenched
and
Tempered, Chromium-Molybdenum
Steel Pipes
SA-106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High
Temperature
SA-312 Seamless and Welded Austenitic
Stainless Steel
Pipes
SA-333 Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low-
Temperature Service
SA-335 Seamless ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High
Temperature Service
SA-999 General requirements for alloy and
Stainless
Steel Pipe
Steel Tubes
SA-179 Seamless Cold-Drawn low-carbon steel
Heat
Exchanger and condenser Tubes

SA-213 Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-


Steel
Boiler, Superheater, and Heat
Exchanger Tubes
SA-450 General requirements for Carbon, Ferritic
Alloy,
and Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes.
SA-1016 General Requirements for Ferritic Alloy,
and
Austenitic Alloy Steel, and Stainless
Steel Tubes.
Steel Flanges and Fittings
SA-105 Carbon Steel Forgings, for Piping
Applications
SA-181 Carbon Steel Forgings, for General-
Purpose
Piping
SA-182 Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe
Flanges,
Forged Fittings, for High-Temperature
Service
SA-234 Piping Fittings of carbon Steel and Alloy
for
Moderate and high-Temperature Service
SA-350 Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forgings,
Requiring
Notch Toughness Testing for Piping
Components
SA-403 World austenitic Stainless Steel Piping
Fittings
SA-420 Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel
and
Structural Steel
SA-6 General Requirements for Rolled
Structural
Steel Bars, Plates, Shapes and Sheet
Piling
SA-36 Carbon Structural Steel
SA-283 Low and intermediate Tensile Strength
carbon
steel Plate
Steel Bolting
SA-193 Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting
Material
for High Temperature Service
SA-194 Carbon and alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for
High-
Pressure and High Temperature Service
SA-320 Alloy steel Bolting Materials for Low-
Temperature Service
SA-962 Common Requirements for Steel
Fasteners or
Fastener Materials or Both, Intended
for Use at
any temperature from Cryogenic to the
Creep
Range
Steel Forgings
SA-105 Carbon Steel Forgings, for Piping
Applications
SA-181 Carbon Steel Forgings, for General
Purpose
Piping
SA-266 Carbon Steel Forgings, for Pressure
Vessel
Components
SA-366 Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure and
High-
Temperature Parts
SA-350 Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forgings,
Requiring
Notch Toughness Testing for Piping
components
SA-508 Quenched and Tempered Vacuum-
Treated
Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for
Pressure
Methods
SA-275 Magnetic Particle Examination of Steel
Forgings
SA-370 Test methods and definitions for
mechanical
testing of Steel Products
SA-388 Ultrasonic Examination of heavy steel
Forgings
SA-435 Straight-beam ultrasonic Examination of
Steel
Plates
SA-577 Ultrasonic angle beam examination of
Steel
Plates
SA-578 Straight beam ultrasonic Examination of
Plain
and clad steel plates for special
applications.
SA-945 Ultrasonic Examination of austenitic
steel
Section II
Part D
Part D
Properties
Sub Part 1 - Stress Tables
Sub Part 2 - Physical Properties Tables
Sub Part 3 - Charts and Tables for
determining shell
thickness of
components under
external
pressure
Mandatory Appendices
Non Mandatory Appendices
Sub Part 1 Stress Tables
1A Sec I, III Class 2 & 3, VIII Div.1, XII
Max. Allowable Stress Values (S) for ferrous
material
1B Sec I, III Class 2 &3, VIII Div.1, XII
S, for non ferrous materials
2A Sec III Class 1, VIII Div.2
Design stress intensity values Sm for ferrous
materials
2B Sec III Class 1, VIII Div.2,
Sm for non ferrous materials
3 Sec.III Class 2 & 3, VIII Div. 1 & 2, XII
S for bolting materials
4 Sec.III Class 1, VIII Div.2
Sm for bolting materials
U Tensile strength values, Su, ferrous & non ferrous
U2 Sec VIII Div.3, Su for ferrous materials.
Y1 Yield Strength values Sy, ferrous & non ferrous
Y2 Factors for limiting permanent strain the nickel,
high nickel
alloys and high alloy steels.
Structure of Tables
Structure of Tables
(continued)
Structure of Tables
(continued)
Structure of Tables (continued)
THANK
YOU