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INTRODUCTION 2 LOGIC

DEFINITION
Derived from the Greek word
logos which means - study,
reason or discourse

LOGIC is the science and art of


correct thinking

- it is a SCIENCE because it is a
systematized body of logical truths
and principles governing correct
- as an ART, logic is a
techne and it teaches how to
make a good argument
- often called the arts of arts
because it develops and
perfects the intellect which all
artists need in their work
LOGIC AND CORRECT THINKING
It is correct when it conforms to a
pattern or to rules
Example: A ruler is 12-inch long

Pres. GMA is a ruler


Therefore, Pres. GMA is 12-inch long
-THINKING is a mental process involves
analysis, definition, classification,
comparison and contrasts, etc.
- It guides or directs man to form
correct ideas
BRANCHES OF LOGIC
FORMAL LOGIC
-concerned with the aspect of form
which has something to do with
the correctness or sequence or the
following of rules
Ex. All men are mortal
but Pedro is a man
therefore Pedro is mortal
BRANCHES OF LOGIC
MATERIAL LOGIC
-concerned with the aspect of subject
matter or content or truth of the argument
Example: A ruler is 12-inch long

Pres. GMA is a ruler


Therefore, Pres. GMA is 12-inch long
KINDS
Deductive Logic: from more to less

Inductive Logic: implies a sense of

probability
CONCEPTS AND TERMS
The three essential operations of the
intellect
Mental Products External Signs
Operations
1. SIMPLE CONCEPT ORAL AND
APPREHENSION WRITTEN TERMS
2.JUDGMENT MENTAL ORAL AND
PROPOSITION WRITTEN
PROPOSITIONS
3. REASONING MENTAL ORAL AND
AGREEMENT WRITTEN
OR ARGUMENTS
DISAGREEME
NT
CONCEPT

The representation of an object by


the intellect through which man
understands or comprehends a
thing
It is an idea- starts with an
outside reality and apprehended
by the senses
KINDS OF CONCEPT

1.First Intention: we understand


what the thing is according to
what it is in reality
Ex. A dog is an animal.
Second Intention: we understand
not only what the thing is
according to what it is in reality
but also how it is in the mind
Ex. Monte Vista (Mountain
View) is the name of my
KINDS OF CONCEPT

2.Concrete Concepts: expresses a


form and a subject
Ex. The flower rose
Abstract Concepts: has a form
only , has intangible quality, that
which cannot be perceived by the
senses
Ex. Beauty in a woman
KINDS OF CONCEPT

3.Absolute Concepts: signifies the


meaning of a concept, all definitions
are absolute concepts
Ex. A triangle is a three-sided figure.
Connotative Concepts: signifies a
characteristic existing in the
concept, all modifiers are
connotative concepts
Ex. Drummer boy
KINDS OF CONCEPT

4.Positive Concepts: signifies the


existence or possession of
something
Ex. happy
Negative Concepts: signifies the
absence of something
Ex. sad
SEATWORK #2

Underline the simple subject of each


proposition then classify according
to the four kinds of concepts in the
column below:
1. Justice is a prerequisite of love.

2. Men are creatures of God.


3. Freedom is the name of our
park.
4. Honesty is still the best policy.
5. Joy is Zenys friend.
Concept I or II C or A A or C P or N
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
ASSIGNMENT #2
Underline the simple subject of each
proposition then classify according
to the four kinds of concepts in the
column below:
1. Love is a many-splendored thing.
2. Love is the theme of the
homily.
3. The loving couple is a model to
their children.
4. Hope is the opposite of despair.
THE TERM
The external representation of a
concept and the ultimate structural
element of a proposition.

- external representation means it is


always a sign of a concept or an idea
- ultimate structural element means
it could either be the subject or
predicate of a proposition
THE TERM

EXAMPLE:

Hilda is a (nun).

subjec predica
t te
PROPERTIES OF A TERM

EXTENSION OF A TERM
the sum total of the particulars to
which the comprehension of a
concept can be applied
The denotation of a term

The terms that are members of the


domain of the concept
PROPERTIES OF A TERM

COMPREHENSION OF A TERM
- the sum total of all notes which
constitute the meaning of a
concept
- set of traits or characteristics that
differentiates the term in a group
- the connotation of a term
PROPERTIES OF A TERM
Example is the term BAT
-for its extension it will include all
animals, regardless of size, shape,
colour, or breeding
-further analysis (comprehension), know
the nature of bats how?
- You must try to state the trait or set of
traits and characteristics that
differentiates bats from the rest of the
animal kingdom
PROPERTIES OF A TERM
Example is the term BAT
-the important common trait of bats
is: they are the only mammals
capable of sustained flight like a
bird
- Unlike birds, bats are able to fly

at low speed with extreme


maneuverability.
RELATIONSHIP
Comprehension and Extension are
related to each other inversely
Meaning: the greater the
comprehension of a term, the
lesser its extension and vice versa
- the arrangement of the
characteristics from general to
specific
Ex. city, barangay, province,
municipality, region, country , sitio
SEATWORK#3
Arrange the ff. from greater
comprehensiont o lesser extension
1. Pedro, Filipino, Man, Asian, Brown
Race
2. Square, Plane, Figure, Rectangle,
Polygon, Parallelogram, shape
ANSWER TO SW#3
1. Man 2. Plane
Asian Figure
Brown Race Shape
Filipino Polygon
Pedro Parallelogram
Rectangle
Square
QUANTITIES OF TERMS
1. SINGULAR it stands for a single definite
individual or group
- Proper nouns ex. Raul, La Union,
DMMMSU
- Nouns modified by adjective to the
superlative degree ex. most charming
- Demonstratives ex. this book, that door
- Collective nouns ex. flock, class
- The article the ex. The man in blue
shorts
- Personal pronouns I, you, he, she, we,
they, my, your, our
QUANTITIES OF TERMS
2. PARTICULAR - it stands for an
indefinite subject
- Indefinite pronouns and adjectives
ex. Some, several, many, few
- Use of numbers ex. Seven tickets
- Use of article a and an
- General propositions: which are true
most of the time but not all the time
ex. Filipinos are hospitable
QUANTITIES OF TERMS
3. UNIVERSAL it stands for every
subject signified
- Universal expressions ex. All, every,
each, whatever, whoever, whichever,
without exception, everything
- Universal ideas
Ex. Men are mortal
- The use of articles the, a, an
if the idea is universal
Ex. The snake is a dangerous
creature.
SEATWORK #4
Underline each simple subject and classify its
quantity: S for singular, P for particular, and U for
universal
1. I am a violinists daughter.

2. All the children are musicians.

3. Six of them are a string ensemble.

4. A brother is a trombone player.

5. Some bands are their competitors during the town


fiesta.
6. A square is a geometric figure with four equal
sides.
7. Two parallel lines will not meet.

8. You should practice what you preach.

9. That girl beside me is wearing a red dress.

10. The weather is warm.


KINDS OF TERMS

1. UNIVOCAL if they mean exactly


the same thing in the last two
occurrences
Ex. Man is rational.
Get that man!
2. EQUIVOCAL if they have different
meanings in at least two
occurrences
Ex. Man the lifeboat!
The son of man
KINDS OF TERMS
3. ANALOGOUS if they have partly
the same and partly different
meanings in at least two
occurrences
KINDS:
1. Intrinsic analogy: used in
technical terms and as definitions
2. Extrinsic analogy: used as a
metaphor
Ex. The heart of the forest
KINDS OF TERMS
KINDS:
3. Analogy of Proportionality:
when the terms use are similar
Ex. The stepmother is cruel.
The sea is cruel.
4.Analogy of Attribution: attribute
the term to its denotation
Ex. I am drinking Coke.
SEATWORK #5
Classify the underlined terms- write U for
Univocal, E for Equivocal, IA for Intrinsic
Analogy, EA for Extrinsic analogy, AP for
for Analogy of Proportionality, AA for
Analogy of Attribution.
1. I am reading Rizal.

2. Gold is a precious metal. Lydia de Vega


received a gold for 100m. Dash.
3. Politicians speaks of leveling the
Smokey Mountain. Geneva Cruz is a
member of the Smokey Mountain.
4. Gonzaga is a tenor. Cabahug is a tenor.

5. I am using Colgate.
SEATWORK #5

Classify the underlined terms- write U for


Univocal, E for Equivocal, IA for Intrinsic
Analogy, EA for Extrinsic analogy, AP for
Analogy of Proportionality, AA for
Analogy of Attribution.
6. Father Sales and my father are friends.
7. The smiling sun is so brilliant.
8. The mouth of the river is clean.
9. We pass by Bridals Veil along Kennon
Road
10. Hitler is a man.
Marcos is a man.
SUPPOSITION OF TERMS
It is functional the way it is meant in
the proposition
Examples:

1. A square is a rectangle with four equal


sides.
2. Square has six letters

3. Square is the subject the sentence

4. A black-rimmed square clock is classy


in my living room.
KINDS OF SUPPOSITION

1. MATERIAL SUPPOSITION: is that which


uses a word for itself alone, for its
spoken or written sign, not for its real
meaning
Examples: #2 and 3
2. FORMAL SUPPOSITION: is that which
uses a word for its real meaning
Example: #1
OTHER KINDS

A] LOGICAL SUPPOSITION: is that which


uses a word for its second intention;
that is the way the mind thinks it to be
Example: #4
B] REAL SUPPOSITION: is that which
uses a word in its first intention
Example: #1
UNDER REAL SUPPOSITION:

1] Absolute Supposition: is that which


uses a word for essence, but without
excluding existing reality
Example: Proposition #1
Personal Supposition: is that which
uses a word for the subject containing
the essence signified by the word
Example: Proposition #4
2.Essential Supposition: is that which
uses a word for qualities necessary to
the subject
Example: #1

Accidental Supposition: is that which


uses a word for qualities not actually
necessary to the subject
Example: #4
SEATWORK#6
Give the specific kind of supposition illustrated
by
the words carabao and pag-asa in each
proposition below.
1. Tamarao belongs to the endangered species.

2. Tamarao is a word with three syllables.

3. Pag-asa is the name of the eaglet.

4. Pag-asa is the subject of the sentence.

5. Pag-asa means hope in English.

6. Pag-asa is now the adopted child of bird


lovers.
OTHER TYPES
IMAGINARY SUPPOSITION: exists as a
product of imagination
Ex. Fictional character
METAPHORICAL SUPPOSITION: term is
used as a figure of speech
Ex. The smiling sun
SYMBOLIC SUPPOSITION: signifies a
group of men
Ex. L.A. Lakers
THE PROPOSITION

A special type of sentence


An enunciation of truth or falsity
Verbal expression of mental
judgment
STRUCTURAL ELEMENT
S C P

[subject]- [copula]- [predicate]


Subject stands for the thing signified, the
one spoken of
Predicate stands for what is affirmed or
denied of the subject
copula- links the subject and the predicate
* acceptable only is the present

tense is or is not
EXAMPLE

All boys (are) future men.

Quantifier subject[S] copula[C] predicate[P]


LOGICAL SYMBOL
[FOUR STANDARD PROPOSITIONS]

QUANTIT QUALITY
Y AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE

UNIVERS A E
AL, Every S is P. No S is P.
SINGULA
R

PARTICU I O
EXAMPLES

A - Every monkey is an animal.


E - No monkey is a human.
I - Some monkeys are brown.
O - Some monkeys are not
brown.
LOGICAL DIAGRAM

A PROPOSITION

PREDICA
TE

SUBJE
CT
E PROPOSITION

SUBJE PREDICA
CT TE
I PROPOSITION

SUBJEC PREDICA
T TE
O PROPOSITION

SUBJEC PREDICA
T TE
LOGICAL FORM
WAYS OF REWRITING PROPOSITION
TO ITS LOGICAL FORM
1. Change the verb to its present
tense progressive.
2. Change the verb to a noun.

3. Change verb to a relative clause.

4. Change verb to a noun clause.


EXAMPLE
ALL CROCODILES CANNOT FLY.
1.NO CROCODILES ARE FLYING.
2.NO CROCODILES ARE FLYERS.
3.NO CROCODILES ARE REPTILES
THAT CAN FLY.
4.NO CROCODILES ARE FLYING
REPTILES.
SQUARE OF OPPOSITION
A E
CONTRAR
S R Y S
U CO IES U
B N
TR B
A O A
A
C T
L L
D
IC I
T D T
A
TO
E TR E
N
R CO IES R
N R N
SUBCONTR
ARY O
CONTRADICTORIES
2 pairs:
1] A O: Every S is P, therefore, some S
is not P.
O A: Some S is not P, therefore,
every S is P.

2]E I: No S is P, therefore, some S is P.


I E: Some S is P, therefore, no S is P.
EXAMPLES:

A - All men are rational,


therefore
O - some men are not rational.

I Some students are girls,


therefore
E No students are girls.
RULES:

1. If one is true, the other is


false.
2. If one is false, the other is
A - All men are rational is true
true.
[ T ], therefore
O - some men are not rational.
False or F
CONTRARY
1 pair:
A E: Every S is P, therefore, no S is P.
or
E A: No S is P, therefore, every S is P.

Example:
E- No students are girls, therefore,
A - every students are girls.
RULES:

1. If one is true, the other is


false.
2. If one is false, the other is
doubtful.

Example:
E- No students are girls is false [
F ], therefore,
SUBCONTRARY
1 pair

I O: Some S is P, therefore
some S is not P.
or
O I: Some S is not P, therefore
some S is P.
EXAMPLE:
I - Some students are girls,
therefore
RULES:

1. If one is true, the other is doubtful.


2. If one is false, the other is true.

EXAMPLE:
I - Some students are girls is true
[ T ], therefore
O - some students are not girls is
doubtful [ ? ].
SUBALTERNS
2 pairs
1. A I: Every S is P, therefore
some S is P.
I A: Some S is P, therefore
every S is P.

2. E O: No S is P, therefore some
S is not P.
EXAMPLE

A- All triangles are planes with


three sides, therefore
I- Some triangles are planes with
three sides.
RULES:

1. If the universal is true, the


particular is true; if the universal
is false, the particular is doubtful
A- All triangles are planes with three
sides is true [ T ], therefore
I- Some triangles are planes with
three sides true [ T ].
2. If the particular is true, the universal is
doubtful; but if the particular is false, the
universal is false.
I- Some triangles are planes with three
sides is true [ T ]
therefore
A- All triangles are planes with three sides
is
Doubtful [?]