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Apparel standards ,

specifications & quality

Quality Definitions
Quality is essential character
,nature , an ingredient or
distinguishing attribute, property, a
character trait, superiority of kind,
degree of grade or excellence.
--Webster II
,University dictionary,
Quality can also mean
The ability to exceed a customers

expectations while maintaining a cost

competitive market position.
--- Johan Rabbitt of the
Foxboro company
Quality can be product based , user based,
manufacturing based or value based.
1. Product basedquality as a precise &
measurable variable.
2. User based quality is whatever the
customer says or wants( meeting
customers requirement & expectations.
3. Manufacture basedquality means
meeting specifications, conformance to
4. Value basedquality takes into
consideration cost or price of the product
Garvin ---Eight dimensions
of quality.
1. Performance--primary operating characteristic of a product
2. FeaturesProducts basic functions.
3. Reliabilityproducts failure within a specified period of
4. Conformanceproducts design & operating characteristics
meet pre- established standard.
5. Durabilitylength of time a product will last or product life
6. ServiceabilitySpeed, courtesy, competence & ease of
repair of a production.
7. Aestheticsproduct looks ,feels, sounds,tastes,or smells
8. Perceived qualityProduct based on image, advertising &
brand reputation
Dr. Joseph M .Juran
Quality can be defined in terms of fitness
for use.
Applied to garments
1. It must be free from defects (material
,assembly & Finish defects)
2. It must fit properly for the labeled size.
3. It must perform satisfactorily in normal
use, (normal laundering-fabric must not
tear or color loss)
Crosby's response to the quality crisis was
the principle of "doing it right the first
time" (DIRFT). He would also include four
major principles:
the definition of quality is conformance to

the system of quality is prevention
the performance standard is zero defects
the measurement of quality is the price of

Quality Related Terms
Quality Management
Quality Systems
Quality Plan

Quality Policy
Quality assurance
Quality Control

Statistical quality control

Factors That Influences
Consumers Perception of
1. Price
2. Technology
3. Psychology
4. Time Orientation
5. Contractual
6. Ethical
A Standard can be defined as
1. Something that is established by authority
, custom or general consent as a model or
example to be followed.
2. Established for use as a rule or basis of
comparison in measuring or judging
capacity, quantity, content, extent, value,
quality, etc
3. The type, model, or generally accepted to
criterion set for usage or practice,
4. A level of excellence, attainment, etc
regarded as a measure of adequacy.
Standards are documented agreements
containing technical specifications or other
precise criteria to be used consistently as
rules, guidelines or definitions of
characteristics, to ensure that materials,
products, processes & services are FIT FOR
(International Organization for
Benefits / importance of
1. Standard facilitate communication &
prevent misunderstanding
2. Standards make parts interchangeability
possible & as a result mass production is
3. Standards can be used in marketing
strategy to promote purchase of the
products that meet nationally recognized
requirement, especially, when
conformance is backed by a certification
4. Standards reduce cost & save money.
Various textiles & apparel standards developing organization.

ISO: International Organization for

BSI: British Standards Institute
** Bureau of Indian standards (BSI) **

AATCC: American Association of Textile Chemists and

ASTM: American Society of Testing and Materials
ASQC: American Society for Quality Control
ASQ: American Society for Quality
ANSI: American national standard institute

AAFA: American Apparel & Footwear Association

AAMA :-- American Apparel Manufacturers Association.
Other International standards
NIST: National institute of standards &
ATMI: American textile manufactures

institute, Inc
IFAI: Industrial fabrics association

IFI: International Fabricare Institute.
JISC: Japanese Industrial Standard

SCC: Standards Council of Canada.
SNZ: Standards New Zealand.
CEN: European Committee for
ASTM develops six Types of
1. Test methods
2. Specifications
3. Practices
4. Terminology
5. Guides
6. Classifications
Levels of standards
Company standards
Industry standards
Government standards
Full consensus standards.

Voluntary standards
Mandatory standards
International standard
Specification can be defined as
The act of specifying, detailed mention or

definition, a detailed description of the parts

of a whole; statement or enumeration of
particulars as to required size, quality,
performance , terms , etc
A specification , or spec , is a precise
statement of a set of requirements to be
satisfied by a material, product, system , or
service that indicates the procedures for
determining wheatear each of the
requirements is satisfied.

Specifications describes requirements, in

other words , specific terms & numerical
values with measurement units are listed so
that it is clear what issues are considered
Types of Specifications
Open specification
Closed specification
A minimum is the least or lowest acceptable
value for any given parameter or

Establishing minimum can be a very difficult

task because it is these values that
encompass performance, appearance, &
quality of the product.
A tolerance describes the range of acceptable values,
In other words it describes allowable deviations from
specified values.
Tolerances may be listed in several ways. As a range

from X to Y, Or as a plus or minus value listed as

being acceptable,

Example Fabric weight

As a range 6 to 7oz/sq yd
Or as a plus or minus value 6.5oz/sq yd +/- .05oz/sq yd
Maximum tolerance
Minimum tolerance
Zero tolerance
Grade is defined as a category or rank
indicator of the totality of feature &
characteristics of a product or service
intended for the same functional use or
purpose, oriented at a specified cost related
consumer/user market.
Grade reflects that additional features &

characteristics may be desirable, usually for

added cost, & that a different version of the
product or service is thus defined