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Social Research for

Participatory Design

Elective Course
01st February 2016
Course Structure

Social Research for Participatory Design


29-01-2016 01-02-2016 05-02-2016 08-02-2016 12-02-2016
Friday Monday Friday Monday Friday
Overview of Overview of Overview of
Introduction
tools for tools for tools for
to
10:00 Social Data Overview of Participatory
Participatory
- Research Collection tools Data Design [High
Design and
11:30 (Qualitative (Quantitative Analysis Quality
Social
Research Research Public
Research
tools) tools) Deliberation]
11:30
- Break Break Break Break Break
11.45
Theory of
11:45 Participation
Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise
- 1:30 and Good
Governance
Social Research Strategies

Deductive Approach Process of Deduction


1.
1. Theory
Theory
Theory
Theory

2.
2. Hypothesis
Hypothesis
Observations/
Observations/
Findings
Findings
3.
3. Data
Data Collection
Collection

Inductive Approach
4.
4. Findings
Findings
Observations/
Observations/
Findings
Findings
5.
5. Hypothesis
Hypothesis confirmed/
confirmed/
rejected
rejected
Theory
Theory
6.
6. Revision
Revision of
of Theory
Theory
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Approach
Quantitative Qualitative
Principal Deductive; testing the Inductive; generation of
Orientation to the theory theory
role of theory in
relation to
research
Epistemological Natural Science Model, Interpretivism
orientation in particular positivism
Ontological Objectivism Constructivism
orientation
Numbers Words
Point of view of Point of view of
researcher participant
Researcher Distant Researcher Close
Structured Unstructured
Static Process
Behaviour (How) Meaning (Why)
Research Design
A research design provides a framework for the collection and
analysis of data.

Criteria for designing research:


- Reliability
- Replication
- Validity
- Measurement Validity
- Internal Validity
(Checking causality)
- External Validity
(Checking the possibility for generalization)
- Ecological Validity
(Validity in the natural settings)
Qualitative Research
An outline of main steps of Qualitative Research

1. General research
questions

2. Selection of relevant site(s) and


subjects

3. Collection of relevant
data

4. Interpretation of 5b. Collection of further


data data

5. Conceptual and theoretical


work
5a. Tighter specification of research
questions
6. Writing up findings/
conclusions
Ethnography

Definition:
- the study and systematic recording of human
cultures;
- a descriptive work produced from such research

Ethnographic Research :
A qualitative approach that studies the cultural
patterns and perspectives of participants in their
natural setting

It entails that the ethnographer immerses


him-/herself in a group for an extended period of
time, observing behaviour, listening to what is said
in conversations both between others and with the
Overt vs. Covert Ethnography

Overt Covert
Access Difficult to Easy to
achieve achieve
Reactivity High Low
Recording Easy Difficult
Observations
Inclusion of Possible Difficult/ not
other possible
research
methods
Anxiety Low High
Ethical Low High
Concerns
Role of Ethnographer

Gold (1958)

Involveme Detachme
nt nt

Complet Participa Observer Complet


e nt as as e
Participa Observer Participa Observer
nt
A fully A fully
nt
Mainly an No
functional functional interview interactio
member of member of er with n with the
the social the social very little people
setting and setting and participati
his true his true on in the Disregarded
identity if identity if social by some
hidden not hidden setting researchers as
Ethnographic
Study
Gold, R. (1958). "Roles in sociological field observation. Social Forces 36, 217-213
Critics to Qualitative Approach

Qualitative Research is too


subjective

Difficult to Replicate

Problems of Generalization

Lack of Transparency
Next time:

Social Research for Participatory Design


29-01-2016 01-02-2016 05-02-2016 08-02-2016 12-02-2016
Friday Monday Friday Monday Friday
Overview of Overview of
Introduction
tools for tools for
to Overview of
10:00 Social Data Overview of
Participatory tools for
- Research Collection tools Data
Design and Participatory
11:30 (Qualitative (Quantitative Analysis
Social Design
Research Research
Research
tools) tools)
11:30
- Break Break Break Break Break
11.45
Theory of
11:45 Participation
Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise
- 1:30 and Good
Governance
Next time:

Prepare a plan for Ethnographic study to be


conducted for your thesis:

Main Research Question


Identification of Social Setting to be observed
Identification of Stakeholders within the social
setting and its characteristics
Selecting the Role of the Ethnographer