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What is a Process?
A process is
some operation carried out to modify input(s) to
output(s) based on physical and/or chemical
row materials (feed) are changed or separated
into useful products
Inputs Outputs

feeds Process
Peralatan yang digunakan :
Bejana utama (vessel) yang tertutup
yang dihubungkan
Perpipaan (pipe) melalui proses
pe-Pompa-an (pump), aliran diatur oleh
Katup (valve) dan dihubungkan dengan
Fasilitas penyimpanan (storage)

Peralatan dan interkoneksinya biasanya

digambarkan dalam bentuk diagram alir
Sifat dari bahan-bahan olahan :
- Non Hazardous
- Hazardous = flammable, explosive,
reactive, toxic, corrosive etc.
Kondisi operasi
- Vacuum
- High pressure
- Low temperature
- High temperature
Classification of processes
Batch process:
material is put in, processed, and discharged
applies to more than just reactors

Continuous process
materials enter and leave in uninterrupted streams
periodic shutdown is required

Semibatch or Semicontinuous
Some materials are charged/discharged at intervals while some enter/exit
Biotechnology industry, to add nutrients
Describing Processes
Input output diagram
Block diagram

Process Flow Diagram


Block flow diagram

Raw Materials Products

Block Flow Diagram
Group of connected blocks of process units
Lines with arrows connect blocks and represent
process streams
Raw materials enter on the left
Products exit on the right
4 kinds of process units:


Raw chocolate chip
eggs Cookie dough

Chocolate chips

Raw chocolate chip Baked chocolate chip

Cookie dough Reactor (Oven) Cookies
4 dozen cookies 3 dozen cookies
75% choc chip 75% choc chip
25% peanut butter 25% peanut butter

1 dozen cookies
75% choc chip
25% peanut butter

4 dozen cookies 3 dozen cookies

75% choc chip 97.5% choc chip
25% peanut butter 2.8% peanut butter

1 dozen cookies
8.3% choc chip
91.7% peanut butter
The first step in any process design or analysis
is the construction of a flowsheet that shows the
major material flows and processing steps.
The flow sheet allows for better visualization
and quantification of the process.A picture is
worth a thousand words.
A process flow sheet is comprised of units,
represented by simple shapes like circles or
Some common flowsheet symbols

Pumps are used to increase a fluids pressure so the fluid will flow from high
pressure to low pressure, or used to condense a fluid or increase the speed of
a chemical reaction.

Gas compressor a different unit description is used as the fluid responds

differently than liquid in a pump (ie increase in pressure causes gas to condense)

Gas expander or turbine is similar but with flows reversed.

Valves are needed to control flows between various units.
Some common flowsheet symbols

Combiner and splitter:

Avoid crossing streams. If streams must cross,

you need to indicate whether they mix or not.

Ambiguous streams combine streams cross

and split without mixing
Flowsheet conventions
Process flowsheet: shows the essential elements of the process
(operations and sequence). Sometimes information on energy and mass
flows are placed on the flowsheet near the streams or n an adjoining table.

Process Control Flowsheet: shows the basic instrumentation necessary

to control the process and its utilities.

Engineering flowsheets: a series of flowsheets that show all the data

required to specify the process equipment. Typically consists of separate
Piping flowsheet shows all pipes and equipment with sizes and other
necessary specifications. This flowsheet contains one symbol for each piece of
equipment in the process.
Instrumentation flowsheet shows the relationship of every instrument to the
process (often combined with piping flowsheet in a P&ID)
Utility flowsheet shows the relationship of the utilities (steam, water, air
electricity) to the process and specifies pipe sizes etc.
Plot plan show a plan view of the plant giving the physical arrangement of the

Process flowsheet: Example 1

Process flowsheet: Example 2
Process flowsheet: Example 3
Comparison of two processes

Units: Actions:

- Heaters/heat exchangers - Heat exchange

- Pumps - Material transport
- Distillation units - Separation
- Reactors - Mixing
- -
Unit Operations
Unit Operations is a method of
analysis and design of
engineering processes in terms
of individual tasks/operations
Unit Operations: Classification
Fluid flow processes Thermodynamic processes

- fluid transport - liquifaction

- solids fluidization - refrigeration
- mixing
Mechanical processes
Heat transfer processes
- crushing
- heating/cooling - sieving
- evaporation/condensation - solid transportation

Mass transfer processes

- absorption
- distillation
- extraction
- adsorption
- drying