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3G and 4G Wireless

– Advances and Challenges

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SRB 041406 ver1
3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges
 Where are we?
 3G Wireless Summary
 Where do we Want to go?
 Evolution to Seamless Networking
 4G Wireless
 Challenges

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SRB 041406 ver1
Where are We?
 Classic Wireline MaBell Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
– US Universal coverage achieved early 1980’s
 “Wireless” First Generation Analog Systems
– Speech
– AMPS, TACS
 Second Generation Digital Systems
– Enhanced Capacity
– CDMA, D-AMPS, TDMA, GSM, DECT, PDC
 2.5 Generation Systems
– Low Speed Data
– GPRS, EDGE
 Third Generation Systems
– “INTERNET” on Wireless
– WiFi/HyperLAN <-> WiMAX/HyperWAN <-> CDMA2000/WCDMA
– Evolution to All IP Network including VoIP

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SRB 041406 ver1
Representative Wireless Standards
 GSM/TDMA
– Time Division Multiplexing based access
 CDMA
– Code Division Multiplexing based access
 OFDM
– Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

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TDMA/FDMA

slot 1 slot 2 ... S lot n


F requency 1 C ircuit C ircuit C ircuit
F requency 2 C ircuit C ircuit C ircuit
.
. D ow nlink P ath
.
F req uency F requency n C ircuit C ircuit C ircuit
D om ain
F requency 1 C ircuit C ircuit C ircuit
F requency 2 C ircuit C ircuit C ircuit
.
. U plink P ath
.
F requency n C ircuit C ircuit C ircuit

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CDMA

Freq:
Chips
X user 1
user 2

usern

Separated by PN codes
t

Message
III Channelization code: Separate xmissions
from a single source from each other
Scrambling code: separate different sources
t from each other
Spreading Code = Channelization code x
Resulting Signal
Scrambling code

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Multipath Arrival of Signals

Y Y

Transmitted
symbol
received signal Modified with the combined
at each time delay channel estimate symbol

finger #1

finger #2

finger #3

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CDMA Rake Receiver
Input signal
(from R F )
I
correlator phase rotator delay SUM I
equalizer
Q
I

SUM Q
code channel
generator estim ator
Q
F inger 1 C om biner
F inger 2
F inger 3
T im ing (F inger allocation)

M atched filter

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SRB 041406 ver1
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
 Successor to Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence CDMA
 Capability to cancel multipath distortion in a spectrally
efficient manner without requiring multiple local oscillators
(802.11a and 802.16)
 Based on use of IFFT and FFT
 Frequency orthogonality as compared to code orthogonality in
CDMA using Walsh Code

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3G Services

2M Hz v ideo telem edicine


conferencing V ideo on M obile
dem and TV

electronic
Internet radio newspaper
Bandwidth paging
audio
conferencing m essaging M obile
radio

Fax
v oice

1K Hz
bi-directional unidirectional B roadcast/
m ulticast

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Key Mobility Services
 Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS)
– Text, sounds, images, and video
– Transition from Short Message Service (SMS)
– Open Internet standards for messaging
 Web Applications
– Information portals
– Wireless Markup Language (WML) with signals using
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
 Location Communications Services
– Location Awareness Based
 Personalization of information presentation format
– Service capability negotiations (MExE environment)

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Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)
 CAMEL = IN + Service portability (incl mobility and roaming)
 Virtual Private Network (VPN)
• Mobile user <-> ISP <-> corporate server
• Mobility, Security, Capacity and quality
 Prepaid, Usage Limitations, Advanced Routing Services
 Virtual Home Environment (VHE)
• Subscriber profile, charging information, Service
information, numbering information
• Integration of array of services, content conversion to
heterogeneous services, network user profile, location
aware services

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GSM Network

SCP
gsm
PSTN/ISDN SSP SCF
STP
ISUP IN
HLR
AuC
C
Gw-MSC
Billing
E, I

C, D Center
Call

SU P

VLR SMS-GW
MSC
GSM
04.08 A

BSS

UE
Circuit domain 13
SRB 041406 ver1
GSM & GPRS

SCP
gsm
PSTN/ISDN SSP SCF IP Services PDN
STP
ISUP IN Gi
HLR
AuC Gc
C
Gw-MSC GGSN
Billing Ga Data,
CGw
E, I

C, D
Center voice,
Call

SU P

Gn video
Ga
call
SMS-GW Gr
VLR
MSC SGSN
GSM
GSM
04.08+ A Gb 04.08+

BSS

UE
Circuit domain Packet domain 14
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WCDMA/UMTS

SCP
gsm
PSTN/ISDN SSP SCF IP Services PDN
STP IN, CAMEL
ISUP Gi+
HLR+
AuC Gc+
C
Gw-MSC GGSN
Billing Ga+ Data,
C+, D+ CGw
E+ ,

Center voice,
Call

Gn+
I SU

video
Ga+
call
P

VLR SMS-GW Gr+


3G-MSC 3G-SGSN
GSM
GSM
04.08++ Iu-cs Iu-ps 04.08++

UTRAN

UE
Circuit domain Packet domain 15
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GSM/UMTS Bit rate, Mobility and Services

High
(Car / Train)
GSM
HSCSD
GPRS

Mobility
Text Messaging

EDGE
Voice
CS Data
Fax

UMTS
Low
(stationary)
Bit Rate, Kbps
9.6 14.4 76.0 GPRS 384.0 EDGE UMTS 2 Mb/s
HSCSD

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3G Evolution
2.5G
GPRS 3.5G
GSM EDGE
HSCSD 170 kbps 473 kbps EDGE Ph2
15.2 kbps GRAN
473 kbps

TDMA TD-SCDMA
CDPD TD-SCDMA Ph 2
43.2 kbps 284 kbps 2 Mbps

WCDMA TDD 2 Mbps


PDA/PDC-P WCDMA FDD
14.4 kbps 2 Mbps WCDMA HSDPA 10 Mbps

CDMA2000 1x 1XEV-DO (HDR) 2.4 Mbps


cdmaOne 307 kps
76.8 kbps 1XEV-DV (HDR) 5.4 Mbps

HyperLAN2
54 Mbps Harmonized
WLAN HyperLAN2
IEEE 802.11b And IEEE 802.11a
IEEE 802.11 a/h
11 Mbps
54 Mbps
WiMAX/HyperMAN also in the mix
Ref: Honkasalo et al, WCDMA and WLAN for 3G and Beyond, IEEE Wireless Communication, Apr 2002 17
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Some Representative Current Wireless Options
 3G Cellular (WCDMA)
– Frequency Division Duplex (FDD): Uplink and Downlink are
separated in frequency – (“symmetric”)
– Time Division Duplex (TDD): Uplink and Downlink are separated in
time – allows “asymmetric” traffic (adjust time slots in uplink and
downlink)
 3G Cellular (CDMA2000)
 Wi Fi
– 802.11a and 802.11b; HyperLAN2
– 2.4 GHz band
 WiMAX
– 802.16d (fixed); 802.16e (“portable”)
– 5.8 GHz band; 10 – 20 Mbps symmetrical BW
 Blue Tooth
– RF based LAN technology; 20-30 feet coverage
– 2.4 GHz band

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3G WCDMA
 Release 99
 Release 4
 Release 5
 Domains, Protocols, and Channels
 Radio Resource Management
 Network Dimensioning and Optimization
 Quality of Service (QoS0 and Location Services

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Release 99
 Radio Bearer Negotiations
 Traffic Classes
 Complex Scrambling
 Speech Codec – (eight) Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR)
 Battery Life
 Transmission “spatial/antenna” diversity
 Compressed Mode
– Measurements in multiple frequency
– Use of transmission time reduction techniques
 # PDP Contexts per IP Address
 QPSK; coherent detection; Rake receiver
 Short and Long Spreading Codes
 Multicall – several simultaneous CS calls with dedicated bearers of
independent traffic and performance characteristics
 Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)
Phase 3

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Release 4
 Bearer Independent Core Network
 Tandem Free Operation (TFO), Transcoder Free Operation
(TrFO), and Out of Band Transcoder Control (OoBTC)
 Low Chip Rate TDD Operation
 Network Assisted Cell Change
 FDD Repeater
 NodeB Synchronization for TDD
 IPv6 packet switched network supporting both real time and
non-real time traffic
– Session Initiated Protocol (SIP) replacing SS7
 Home Subscriber Server (HSS)
 MSC/VLR -> MSC server (mobility management) and MGW
(Connection management subtasks)
 Multimedia Message Service (MMS) environment

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Release 5
 IP Transport in UTRAN
 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) (upto 10 Mbps)
 Intra Domain Connection to Multiple CN Nodes (Iuflex)
 IP Multimedia CN Subsystem (IMS)
 “Guaranteed” End to End (E2E) QoS in the PS domain
 Global Text Telephony
 Support for Real Time Services in packet domain
 CAMEL Phase 4

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HSDPA
 Peak Data rate > 10 Mbps
 Same spectrum by both voice and data
– Up to 12 spreading codes for High Speed DSCH (HS-DSCH)
– Fast link Adaptation
– Both code and time division for channel sharing
 Transmission Time interval 2 ms
 Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ)
– Automatic optimizations to Channel Quality Indicator (CQI)
 QPSK and 16 QAM modulation at 3.84 Mhz symbol; spreading
factor fixed to 16
 Incremental Redundancy or chase combining (CH)
 New DPCCH2 in uplink primarily for HARQ channel state info

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SRB 041406 ver1
WCDMA Domains

Home
Network
Domain

[Zu]

Cu Uu Iu [Yu]

Serving Transit
Net work Network
Domain Domain

USIM Mobile Access Core


Domain Equipment Network Network
Domain Domain Domain

User Equipment Infrastructure


Domain Domain

Standardization of architecture (domains) and standardization of protocols (strata)


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SRB 041406 ver1
WCDMA Protocol Layers

Radio Control Plane User Plane


Network
Layer Application Data
Protocol Stream(s)

Transport Transport Network Transport Network Transport Network


Network User Plane Control Plane User Plane
Layer
ALCAP(s)

Signalling Signalling Data


Bearer(s) Bearer(s) Bearer(s)

Physical Layer

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WCDMA L1, L2, and RRC Sublayer
C-plane signalling U-plane information

GC Nt DC

Duplication avoidance

GC Nt DC
UuS boundary
L3
control
RRC L3/RRC

PDCP
con con con con PDCP L2/PDCP
trol trol trol trol

BMC L2/ BMC

RLC RLC L2/RLC


RLC RLC
RLC RLC
RLC RLC

Logical
Channels

MAC
L2/MAC
Transport
Channels
PHY L1

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SRB 041406 ver1
WCDMA Channels

Logical C hannels C ontrol T raffic


BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH SHCCH DTCH CTCH

M ac -b -c/sh -d

C om m on D edicated
T ransport C hannelsB C H PCH FACH RACH U L C P C HD S C H DCH

P hysical C hannels M apped to T ransport C hannels D edicated


PCCPH SCCPCH PRACH PCPCH PDSCH DPDCH DPCCH SCH
C P IC H
A IC H
P IC H
C S IC H
C D /C A -IC H

Transport Channels: how information transferred over the radio interface


Logical Channels: Type of information transferred over the radio interface

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SRB 041406 ver1
Mapping Between Channels
Uplink Downlink
DCCH DCCH
CCCH DTCH PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH DTCH
Logical
Channels

Transport
RACH CPCH DCH Channels PCH BCH FACH DSCH DCH

Mapped
PRACH PCPCH DPDCH Physical PCCPCH SCCPCH PDSCH DPDCH
DPCCH Channels DPCCH

Dedicated SCH
Physical CPICH
Channels AICH
PICH
CSICH
CD/CA-ICH

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WCDMA Channel Usage Examples

Dedicated channels Com m on channels Shared channels


DCH FCH RACH CPCH DSCH USCH
Uplink/ Both Downlink Uplink Uplink Downlink Uplink, only
Downlink in TDD
Code Usage According to m axm Fixed Fixed Fixed Codes Codes
bit rate codes per codes per codes per shared shared
cell cell cell btw users btw users
Fast Power control Yes No No Yes Yes No
Soft handover Yes No No No No No
Suited for Medium or large Sm all Sm all Sm all or Medium Medium
data am ounts data data m edium or large or large
am ounts am ounts data data data
am ounts am ounts am ounts
Suited for bursty No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
data

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SRB 041406 ver1
Radio Resource Management
 Power Control
 Handover
 Access Control
 Load and Congestion Control
 Packet Scheduling

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SRB 041406 ver1
WCDMA Power Control (near = far)

Keep received power


levels P1 and P2 equal

Y Y Power control commands


to the UEs
UE1

NodeB
UE2
Uplink and downlink (1500 Hz)
Open Loop Power Control
Closed Loop Power Control
Outer Loop Power Control

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SRB 041406 ver1
WCDMA Handovers
sector 1

The samesignal is sent


fromboth sectors to UE

Softer

Y Y
RNC

sector 2

Y Y
Soft

The same signal is sent from


both NodeB's to UE, except for the
RNC NodeB1 power control commands

macro diversity Y Y
combining in uplink

NodeB2

Hard and Inter-frequency handovers


Intersystem cell-reselection
“Equivalent PLMN mode” (autonomous cell re-selection (packet) idle mode)
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Handover Algorithm

T T T

Pilot E c/I O of cell 1 Reporting_range


+ Hysteresis_event 1B

Reporting_range
- Hysteresis_event 1A

Hysteresis_event 1C

Pilot E c/I O of cell 2

Pilot E c/I O of cell 3

Connected to cell 1

Event 1A Event 1C Event 1B


- add cell2 = replace cell1 = remove cell3
with cell3

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SRB 041406 ver1
Network Dimensioning and Optimization
 Dimensioning Criteria
– Coverage, Capacity, Quality of Service
 Dimensioning
– Link budget, capacity (hard and soft) and load factor
– Estimation of average interference power
– Coverage end Outage probabilities
 Optimization
– Performance Requirements
– Antenna adjustments, neighbor lists, scrambling codes

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SRB 041406 ver1
WCDMA Quality of Service (Qos)
 Dynamic Negotiations of properties / Services of radio bearer
– Thruput, transfer delay, data error rate
– Authentications

T raffic class C o n versatio n al classS tream in g class In teractive class B ackg ro u n d


F undam ental P reserv e tim e relationP reserv e tim e R equest response D estination is not
characteristics (v ariation) between relation (v ariation) pattern ex pecting the data
inform ation entities ofb etween inform ation
P reserv e data within a certain tim e
the stream entities of the integrity P reserv e data
C onv ersational pattern stream integrity
(stringent and low
delay)
E xam ples of the v oice, S tream ing W eb browsing, B ackground
application v ideotelephony m ultim edia network gam es download of em ails
v ideo gam es

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Location Services (LCS)
UTRAN

Node B Iub SRNC HLR


Uu
LMU SM LC Iu
type B
Lh
UE Le
Lg External
MSC Gateway
Um A/ (Gb)/ LCS client
MLC
(Iu)
BTS Abis
BSC
LMU
Ls Lc
LMU <- alternative-> type B
Lb<- alternative->
type A (R98 and 99)
GERAN SMLC

Lp gsmSCF

SMLC

Cell ID based
Observed Time Difference Arrival – Idle Period Downlink (OTDOA-IPDL)
Network Assisted GPS

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SRB 041406 ver1
Why Move Towards 4G?
 Limitation to meet expectations of applications like
multimedia, full motion video, wireless teleconferencing
– Wider Bandwidth
 Difficult to move and interoperate due to different standards
hampering global mobility and service portability
 Primarily Cellular (WAN) with distinct LANs’; need a new
integrated network
 Limitations in applying recent advances in spectrally more
efficient modulation schemes
 Need all all digital network to fully utilize IP and converged
video and data

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SRB 041406 ver1
Where Do We Want to Go?
 Seamless Roaming
 Integrated “standard” Networks
 Mobile Intelligent Internet

Onwards to (Ultra) Wideband Wireless IP Networks

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Upcoming
 3.5 G
– Evolved radio Interface
– IP based core network
 4G
– New Air Interface
– Very high bit rate services
– Convergence of Wireline, Wireless, and IP worlds

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SRB 041406 ver1
3G All-IP Reference Architecture

Applications Legacy mobile


& Services signaling
Network
SCP
Multimedia
Alternative CSCF
R-SGW IP Networks
Access Mw
Network Mh Ms
Mm
CAP HSS
HLR CSCF
Cx Mg
Mr Gi
Gr
Gc Gi MRF
SGSN Gi MGCF T-SGW
Gn
GGSN Mc
Iu Gi
PSTN/
TE MT UTRAN MGW MGW
Iu Legacy/External
R Uu Nb
Mc Mc
MSC Server GMSC Server T-SGW
Gp Nc

GGSN Signalling Interface


Gn Signalling and Data Transfer Interface
SGSN Other PLMN

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WCDMA 3G Evolution to All-IP Network
Ap
pl
ica
PSTN/ISDN tio
www, n Internet/Intranet/ISP
Wirel se
email rv
ess er
s
Data
IP
Serve IP PSTN/ISDN
r Firew
all

HLR GGS CSC MGC SG


HSS
AuC N F F W

3G- (G)M MG
PCM MSC SC W IP MG
SS7 Serve W
SGS
r MR
N
ATM GTP+/IP GGS F
N

RNC
RNC Iur Iub
Iub
N_B
N_B UTRAN

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SRB 041406 ver1
3.5G Radio Network Evolution
 High Data rate, low latency, packet optimized radio access
 Support flexible bandwidth upto 20 MHz, new transmission
schemes, advanced multi-antenna technologies, and signaling
optimization
 Instantaneous peak DL 100 Mb/s and UP 50 Mb/S within 20
MHz spectrum
 Control plane latency of < 100 ms (camped to active) and < 50
ms (dormant to active)
 > 200 users per cell within 5 MHz spectrum
 Spectrum flexibility from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz
 Eliminate “dedicated” channels; avoid macro diversity in DL
 Migrate towards OFDM in DL and SC-FDMA in UL
 Support voice services in the packet domain
 Adaptive Modulation and Coding using Channel Quality
Indicator (CQI) measurements

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3.5G WCDMA Evolved System Architecture

GERAN

Source: www.3gpp.org 43
SRB 041406 ver1
Key 3G and 4G Parameters
Attribute 3G 4G
Major Characteristic Predominantly voice- data as Converged data and VoIP
add-on
Network Architecture Wide area Cell based Hybrid – integration of
Wireless Lan (WiFi), Blue
Tooth, Wide Area
Frequency Band 1.6 - 2.5 GHz 2 – 8 GHz

Component Design Optimized antenna; multi-band Smart antennas; SW multi-


adapters band; wideband radios
Bandwidth 5 – 20 MHz 100+ MHz

Data Rate 385 Kbps - 2 Mbps 20 – 100 Mbps

Access WCDMA/CDMA2000 MC-CDMA or OFDM

Forward Error Correction Convolution code 1/2, 1/3; Concatenated Coding


turbo
Switching Circuit/Packet Packet

Mobile top Speed 200 kmph 200 kmph

IP Multiple versions All IP (IPv6.0)

Operational ~2003 ~2010 44


SRB 041406 ver1
Key 4G Mobility Concepts
 Mobile IP
– VoIP
– Ability to move around with the same IP address
– IP tunnels
– Intelligent Internet
 Presence Awareness Technology
– Knowing who is on line and where
 Radio Router
– Bringing IP to the base station
 Smart Antennas
– Unique spatial metric for each transmission

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SRB 041406 ver1
4G Networks Advances
 Seamless mobility (roaming)
– Roam freely from one standard to another
– Integrate different modes of wireless communications – indoor
networks (e.g., wireless LANs and Bluetooth); cellular signals;
radio and TV; satellite communications
 100 Mb/se full mobility (wide area); 1 Gbit/s low mobility (local area)
 IP-based communications systems for integrated voice, data, and
video
– IP RAN
 Open unified standards
 Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
– Successor to “SS7”; replacement for TCP
– Maintain several data streams within a single connection
 Service Location Protocol (SLP)
– Automatic resource discovery
– Make all networked resources dynamically configurable through
IP-based service and directory agents

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SRB 041406 ver1
4G Networks Advances – cont’d
 Diameter
– Successor to “Radius”
– Unified authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA)
 Integrated LAN card and Subscriber Identity Modules (SIMs)
 HSS
– Unified Subscriber Information
 Application developers, Service providers, and content
creators

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Key Challenges
 Spectral Efficiencies
– Challenge Shannon’s fundamental law of data communications
(BW, Sig/No)
– Hardware Frequency Synthesis techniques esp. for Frequency
Hop (FH) systems
– Traffic characteristics management (burstiness, directionality)
 Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM)
– Baseband process using parallel equal bandwidth subchannels
– MC-CDMA; OFDM
– Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK); Multilevel Quadrature
Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM); Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
– Add cyclic extension or guard band to data
– Challenges of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Peak to
Average Ratio (PAVR)

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Key Challenges - cont’d - 1
 Signal Processing and optimizations
– Handling extremely large number of users
– Synchronous and asynchronous transmissions
– Orthogonality / correlation of large number of codes
– Spectrum Pollution
– Multi path re-enforcement / interference
– Multi User Detection (MUD) and Adaptive Interference
suppression techniques (ISI and MAI)

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Key Challenges - cont’d - 2
 Extremely Fast Arithmetic (esp. multiplication)
– N Dimensional vector spaces
– IFFT, FFT
– Advanced DSP’s for parsing and processing data
 Smart / Intelligent Antennas
– Dynamically adjust beam pattern based on CQI
– Switched beam Antennas; adaptive arrays
– Coverage limitations due to high frequencies (> 5 GHz)

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Key Challenges - cont’d - 3
 More Efficient and Sensitive Transreceiver Designs
– Noise figure, gain, group delay, bandwidth, sensitivity, tunable
filters, spurious rejection, power consumption
– Frequency Reuse; linearity techniques
– Tight closed Loop power control
– Dynamic Frequency selection and packet assignments
– Multi band, wide band, and flexible radios
– Error Correction Coding
– “Perfect” Synchronization / phase alignment between Xmitter
and Receiver
• Clock recovery algorithms (e.g., as times-two, zero crossing)
– Adaptive digitization of speech and multi media signals
• A/D and D/A transformations

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4G RF/IF Architecture Example

Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm
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4G Transreceiver Processing Example

Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm
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Key Challenges - cont’d - 4
 All IP Network
– Tunneling and Firewalls
– Fast Handoff control, authentication, realtime location
tracking, distributed policy management
– Media Gateways for handling packet switched traffic
• Trasnscoders, echo cancellations, media conversions
Planetary Interoperability

 Integration across different topologies


– Multi Disciplinary Cooperation

WPAN WLAN
+ IP
WWAN WMAN

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SRB 041406 ver1
Key Challenges - cont’d - 5
 Distribute intelligence to the edges
– Very Smart User equipment; away from “network Centric”
architecture
– Access routers
– Miniaturization esp User Equipment
 Security and Levels of Quality of Service (QoS)
– Encryption Protocols; Security and “trust of information”
– Different rates, error profiles, latencies, burstiness
– Dynamic optimization of scarce resources
 Advanced Used interactions / presentation
– Improved User interfaces
– advanced Speech recognition and synthesis
– Flexible displays

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Key Challenges - cont’d - 6
 Web AI service / Interactive Intelligent Programs
– Smart applications in the web; intelligent agents
– Web Adaptiveness – global database schemes, global error
corrective feedback, logic layer protocol, learning
algorithms
– Symbolic manipulation
– Derive specifically targeted knowledge from diverse
information sources
 Standardizations and Regulatory
– Modulation techniques, switching schemes, roaming
– Spectrum
– Cooperation/coordination among global Spectrum
Regulators

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4G Forums
 Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) in Europe
 Next-Generation Internet (NGI)
– Led by and focused on US Fed Agencies (DoD, DoE, NASA,
NIH etc.)
– High Performance networks: vBNS (NSF), NREN (NASA),
DREN (DoD), ESnet (DoE),
 Internet2
– US Universities Initiated
– Focus on Gigabit/sec Points of Presence (gigaPoPs)

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SRB 041406 ver1
Summary
 Mobile Intelligent Internet and multi media applications
 Seamless Roaming, substantially high and selectable user
bandwidth, customized QoS, Intelligent and responsive user
interface
 Mobile IP, Radio Routers, smart Antennas
 Continued advances and challenges from 1G -> 4G
– Modulation techniques, transreceiver advances, fast
manipulations, user interfaces, IP tunelling and firewalls
– Spectrum usage, regulatory decisions, “one” standard,
authentication and security, multi disciplinary co-operation
 Packing so much intelligence in smaller and smaller physical
space, esp. User Equipment (UE)

IP + WPAN + WLAN + WMAN + WWAN + any other stragglers = 4G

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Back-up

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1st Generation Analog Cellular Systems

Standard Region Frequency Channel No. of Modulation Data Rate


(MHz) Spacing Channels (kbps)
(kHz)
AMPS USA 824-849 30 832 FM 10
869-894
TACS Europe 890-915 25 1000 FM 8
935-980
ETACS UK 872-915 25 1240 FM 8
917-950
NMT 450 Europe 453-457.5 25 180 FM 1.2
463-467.5
NMT 900 Europe 890-915 12.5 1999 FM 1.2
935-960
C-450 Germany 450-455.74 10 573 FM 5.28
Portugal 460-465.74
RTMS Italy 450-455 25 200 FM -
460-465
Radiocom France 414.8-418 12.5 250 FM -
2000 424.8-428
NTT Japan 870-885 25 600 FM 0.3
JTACS / Japan 860-870 25 400 FM 8.0
NTACS 915-925

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2nd Generation Cellular and Cordless Systems
System IS-54 GSM IS-95 CT-2 CT-3 DECT
Country USA Europe USA Europe, DCT-90 Europe
Asia Sweden
Access TDMA / TDMA / CDMA / FDMA TDMA / TDMA /
Technology FDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA
(DS)
Frequency
Band
BS(MHz) 869-894 935-960 869-894 864-868 862-866 1800-1900
MS(MHz) 824-849 890-915 824-849
Duplexing FDD FDD FDD TDD TDD TDD
RF Channel 30 200 1250 100 1000 1728
Spacing
(kHz)
Modulation Pi/4 GMSK BPSK / GFSK GFSK GFSK
DQPSK QPSK
Frequency Fixed Fixed Fixed Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic
Assignment
Power
Control
MS Y Y Y N N N
BS Y Y Y N N N
Speech VSELP RPE-LTP QCELP ADPCM ADPCM ADPCM
Coding
Speech rate 8
(kbps) (variable
7.95 13 rate) 32 32 32
Channel Bit
Rate (kbps) 48.6 270.833 1228.8 72 640 1152
Channel 1/2 rate 1/2 rate 1/2 rate None CRC CRC
Coding convolution convolution forward,
1/3 rate
reverse,
CRC
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3G WCDMA and CDMA2000 Standards

U M T S -W C D M A C D M A 2000

"N o' B ackward C om patibility B ackw ard com patibility with C D M A O ne


C ell S ites not synchronized C ell sites synchronized thru' G P S tim ing
E ach cell site with different scram bling
A djacent cell sites use diffferent tim e offs
code for spreading of sam e scram bling code for spreading
C om plex soft H and O v er S im ple S oft H and O v er
S cram bling c ode 38,400 chips; fram eP reudo R andom (P N ) sequence of length
15
of 10 m s 2 - 1 chips; period of 26.67 m s; differen
site offset of 64 chips
O V S F C odes W alsh C odes

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Cdma2000 Layered Structure
Packet Data Packet Data Packet Data
Application Application Application
Upper
Layers Signaling TCP UDP High Speed
(OSI 3-7 ) Services
Circuit Network
Layer Services
IP
PPP

LAC LAC Protocol Null LAC

Link
Layer
(OSI 2) MAC
Control Best Effort Delivery RLP
State
MAC

Multiplexing QoS Control

Physical
layer
(OSI 1) Physical Layer

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SRB 041406 ver1 Unique to cdma2000
UMTS Spectrum Allocation

IMT-2000 IMT-2000
TDD TDD
GSM 1800 IMT-2000 MSS IMT-2000 MSS
DL DECT UL UL DL DL

Europe

IMT-2000 IMT-2000
PHS UL DL

Japan

IS-95 IMT-2000 IMT-2000


DL UL DL

Korea

PCS/UL PCS/DL
USA

1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200

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WCDMA Circuit Switched Protocols

CM CM

MM MM

RRC RRC

CODEC RLC RLC


RANAP RANAP
MAC MAC

Q.2630.1 Q.2630.1
Phy-up Phy-up
Q.2150.1 SCCP SCCP Q.2150.1
Iu
UP Iu
ALCAP NBAP NBAP ALCAP MTP3b MTP3B MTP3B MTP3b
UP
FP SSCF-UNI SSCF-UNI SSCF-UNI SSCF-UNI FP SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI

SSCOP SSCOP SSCOP SSCOP SSCOP SSCOP SSCOP SSCOP


PHY PHY
AAL2 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 AAL2 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL2

ATM ATM ATM ATM

PHY PHY PHY PHY

UE Node B RNC Core

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WCDMA PACKET CONTROL PLANE PROTOCOLS

Uu Iub Iu-ps

SM
GMM
RRC RRC
RLC RLC
MAC-cd MAC-cd
PHY-up PHY-up
FP ALCAP NBAP NBAP ALCAP FP
SSSAR SAAL SAAL SAAL SAAL SSSAR
PHY PHY
AAL2 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL2
CDMA CDMA ATM ATM
PHY PHY

UE/MTE NODE B RNC SGSN

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WCDMA PACKET USER PLANE PROTOCOLS

Uu Iub Iu-ps

IP

PDCP PDCP
RLC RLC
MAC MAC
PHY-up PHY-up

FP ALCAP ALCAP FP

PHY PHY AAL2 SAAL SAAL AAL2


CDMA CDMA ATM ATM
PHY PHY

UE/MTE NODE B RNC SGSN

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HSDPA Protocol Architecture

RLC RLC

MAC MAC-D

MAC-c/sh HS- HS-


DSCH DSCH
MAC- HS- HS- FP FP
hs DSCH DSCH
FP FP

L2 L2 L2 L2

PHY PHY L1 L1 L1 L1

Uu Iub Iur

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IMS Architecture

Home
HSS
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
Other IP/IMS
network

IMS

UTRAN SGSN GGSN P-CSCF

Serving PS domain

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Standards
IEEE 802.11a and b: Wireless LAN (WiFi)
IEEE 802.15: Wireless PAN (Bluetooth)
IEEE 802.16d and e: Wireless MAN (WiMAX)

IS-41: Inter-systems operation (TIA/EIA-41)


IS-54: 1st Gen (US) TDMA; 6 users per 30 KHz
channel
IS-88: CDMA
IS-91: Analog Callular air interface
IS-93: Wireless to PSTN Interface
IS-95: TIA for CDMA (US) (Cdmaone)
IS-124: Call detail and billing record
IS-136: 2nd Genr TDMA (TDMA control channel)
IS-637: CDMA Short Message Service (SMS)
IS-756: TIA for Wireless Network Portability
(WNP)
IS-2000: cdma2000 air interface (follow on to
TIA/EIA 95-B)

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Glossary
3GPP:3G Partnership Project IMT:International Mobile Telecommunications
AAA:Authentication, Authorization, Accounting ITU:International Telecommunications Union
AMR:Adaptive Multi Rate (Speech Codec) OVSF:Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor
ANSI:American National Standards Institute PDN:Public Data Network
ARIB:Association of Radio Industries and Businesses PLMN:Public Land Mobile Network
(Japan) PSTN:Public Switched Telephone Network
BRAN:Broadband Radio Access Network (HYPERLAN QoS:Quality of Service
2) 2.5 Mbps RAB:Radio Access Bearer
CAMEL:Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced RNC:Radio Network Controller
Logic RRC:Radio Resource Control
CDMA:Code Division Multiple Access SGSN:Servicing GPRS Support Node
CWTS: China Wireless Telecommunications Standards SIM:Subscriber Identity Module
group (China) TDD:Time Division Duplex
ECMA:European Computer Manufacturers Association TDMA:Time Division Multiple Access
EDGE:Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution TTA:Telecommunications Technology Association
ETSI:European Telecommunications Standards Institute (Korea)
FDD:Frequency Division Duplex TTC:Telecommunications Technology
FDMA:Frequency Division Multiple Access Commission (Japan)
GGSN:Gateway GPRS Support Node UMTS:Universal Mobile Telecommunications
GMSC:Gateway MSC System
GPRS:General Packet Radio Service UTRAN:UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
GSM:Global System for Mobile communication VoIP:Voice over Internet Protocol
GTP:GPRS Tunneling Protocol WCDMA:Wideband Code Division Multiple
HIPERLAN:High Performance Radio Local Area Access
Network WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network
HLR:Home Location Register WPAN: Wireless Personal Area Network
HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data WWAN: Wireless Wide Area Network
HYPERLAN: High Performance Radio Access network
IMSI:International Mobile Subscriber Identity 71
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References
1. www.3gpp.org
2. WCDMA for UMTS, Ed.: H. Holma and A. Toskala, John Wiley, 2001
3. UMTS - Mobile Communications for the Future, Ed. F.Muratore, John Wiley, 2001
4. WCDMA: Towards IP Mobility and Mobile Internet, Eds E.Djanpera and R.Prasad,
Artech House, 2001
5. IS-95 CDMA and CDMA2000, V.K.Garg, Publishing House of Electronics Industry,
Beijing, 2002
6. IP Telephony, O. Hersent, D. Gurle Et, and J-P Petit, Addison-Wesley, 2000
7. www.mobileinfo.com

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