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INDIA

UMEPLOYME
NT
Unemployment Rate in India decreased
to 4.90 percent in 2013 from 5.20
percent in 2012. Unemployment Rate
in India averaged 7.32 percent from
1983 until 2013, reaching an all time
high of 9.40 percent in 2009 and a
record low of 4.90 percent in 2013.
India Labour Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit

Unemployment 4.90 5.20 9.40 4.90 percent


[+]

Rate
[+]
Employed Perso 29650.00 28999.00 29650.00 17491.00 Thousand
ns
Unemployed Per 48.26 46.80 48.26 5.10 Million
[+]

sons
[+]
Labor Force Par 52.50 50.90 52.90 50.90 percent
ticipation Rate

Population 1299.00 1283.00 1299.00 359.00 Million


[+]

Retirement Ag 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00


[+]

e Women
[+]
Retirement Age 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00
Men
Wages 272.19 255.65 272.19 3.87 INR/Day
[+]

[+]
Wages High Skil 50300.00 48700.00 50300.00 43000.00 INR/Month
led
Wages In Manuf 347.30 322.07 347.30 4.86 INR/Day
[+]

acturing
[+]
Wages Low Skil 11900.00 10900.00 11900.00 9000.00 INR/Month
led
Youth Unemplo 12.90 18.10 18.10 12.90 percent
[+]

yment Rate
[+]
Living Wage Fam19735.10 19685.10 20659.60 19020.90 INR/Month
ily
[+]
Living Wage Ind 12109.80 12072.40 12719.20 11451.80 INR/Month
ividual
UNEMPLOYMENT IN
INDIA

*TYPES
*CAUSES
*SOLUTION
* Unemploymentis a
situation where in the
person willing to work fails
to find a job that earns
them living.
Types:Unemployment may be
categorized as follows:

*seasonal unemployment,
*industrial unemployment,
*educational unemployment,
*technological unemployment,
and
*disguised unemployment.
Causes / Reasons of
unemployment
*Theoretical education
*Lack of full employment in
industries
*Lack of alternative opportunities
for agricultural workers
OTHER FACTORS

*Rapidly increasing population;

*Low productivity in agriculture


sector;

*Defective economic planning,


and

*Large-scale production and


mechanization.
SOLUTION
*Increase in national wealth through
industrialization
*Establishment of Vocational and
Technical training institutes
*Increased investment in heavy
industries
*Modernization of agriculture
*Improved transport and
communication
*Self-employment should be
encouraged
POVERTY
*In

India, 21.9% of the population lives below

the national poverty line


.

*In

India, 49.9% of the population aged 15 ye

ars and above is employed


.

*For

every 1,000 babies born in India, 38 die bef


As per the survey conducted in 2011-
2012, the percentage of persons below
thePoverty Line in Indiafor the year
2011-12 has been estimated as 25.7%
in rural areas, 13.7% in urban areas
and 21.9% for the country as a whole.
India has reduced its poverty rate to 12.4
per cent from the 2011-12 estimate of 21
per cent, according to new data released
by World Bank, which identified rural
electrification as an important driving factor
for everything from greater rural spending
to schooling
CAUSES OF POVERTY
*Poor agriculture
*Growing population
*Gap between the rich and
the poor
*Corruption and black-money
EFFECTS OF
POVERTY

Illiteracy
Child Labor
Nutrition and diet
Poor living condition andHousing
problems
Unemployment
Hygieneand sanitation
Feminization of poverty
Social tensions
FIVE KEY DRIVERS OF
REDUCING POVERTY
ININDIA
Accelerating rural poverty reduction

Creating more and better jobs

Focusing on women and Scheduled


Tribes

Improving human development


outcomes for the poor
OTHER SOLUTIONS
Farmers must get all facilities for
irrigation.
They should be trained and educated.
Agriculture must be made profitable.
The ever-rising population should be
checked.
Family planning schemes should be
introduced.
More and more industries should be set
up to meet the needs of our country.
Corruption must end. Our offices
should work efficiently
RESOURCE DEGRADATION IN
INDIA
ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES
Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Solid Waste Pollution
Noise Pollution
AIR POLLUTION

Air pollution in India is a serious


issue with the major sources being
fuelwood and biomass burning,
fuel adulteration, vehicle emission
and traffic congestion.
WATER POLLUTION

India has majorwater


pollutionissues. Discharge of
untreated sewage is the single
most important cause for pollution
of surface and ground water in
India.
SOLID WASTE
POLLUTION

Trash and garbage is a common


sight in urban and rural areas of
India. It is a major source of
pollution. Indian cities alone
generate more than 100 million
tons of solid waste a year.
NOISE POLLUTION

Noise pollution or noise


disturbance is the disturbing or
excessive noise that may harm the
activity or balance of human or
animal life. Noise-wise India can
be termed as the most polluted
country in the world.
URBAN PLANNING
Urban Planning in India is slowly but
steadily gaining pace. The rapid
increase in urban population of India
is the result of aggressive
industrialization. According to
reports, in 2001 the number of
people lived in urban India was
around 285 million.
Urban Planning in India took a beating during
the period from 1991 to 2001 as the number of
metropolitan cities increased from 23 to 35.

This in turn resulted in the shortage in housing,

drinking water supply, sewerage, health care


center. Further, this had led to increased
vehicular traffic, pollution, poverty, and social
chaos, thus compromising the main essence of
urban life
URBAN PLANNING
INCLUDES THE
FOLLOWING;

Town planning
Regulation of land use for
residential and commercial
purposes
Construction of buildings
Construction of roads-
Constructions of bridges
Water supply for domestic use,
industrial and commercial purposes
Public health care management
Sewerage, sanitation and solid
waste management
Urban forestation and maintenance
Safeguarding the interests of
weaker sections of society

Offering proper infrastructural help


to the handicapped and mentally
retarded population of the society

Increased provision of basic urban


facilities like public urinals,
subways, footpaths, parks,
gardens, and playgrounds
FISCAL POLICY

Fiscal policy means the use of


taxation and public expenditure
by the government for
stabilization or growth.
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
OF FISCAL POLICY IN
INDIA
To maintain and achieve full
employment.
To stabilize the price level.
To stabilize the growth rate of
the economy.
To maintain equilibrium in the
Balance of Payments.
To promote the economic
development of underdeveloped
countries.
MAIN OBJECTIVES OF
FISCAL POLICY IN INDIA
Development by effective Mobilisation of
Resources
Reduction in inequalities of Income and
Wealth
Price Stability and Control ofInflation
Employment Generation
Balanced Regional Development
Development of Infrastructure
Foreign Exchange Earnings
SPENDING
Rural areas and infrastructure
could be the primary
beneficiaries of government
funds, according to a Goldman
Sachs report.
INTERNATIONAL
CONFLICT
Conflict between india and pakistan

118,950 SQ. MILES Total disputed


territory (source BBC)

450 MILES Length of disputed


border (source CNN)

3 Number of disputed territories


(source BBC)
MARCH 21, 2017
India and Pakistan Revive Talks on Cross-Border
Water Resources
India and Pakistan revived World Bank
mediated talks in Islamabad. Pakistan raised
concerns about hydropower projects India is
building on waterways that flow into Pakistan (
VOA)
MARCH 16, 2017
India Expedites Kashmir Hydropower Projects
India has fast-tracked approval for three
hydropower projects on the Indus River in
Kashmir, sparking a potential flashpoint with
Pakistan. The move comes despite earlier
protests from Pakistan over the proposals,
which it says violate a World Bank-mediated
agreement on the sharing of water resources (
Reuters).
FEBRUARY 10, 2017
Pakistan Claims India Building Nuclear Site
The foreign ministry called allegations by
Pakistan that India is building a secret nuclear
city "baseless." A Pakistani foreign ministry
spokesman said on Thursday that India has
established a secret site to develop
thermonuclear weapons and intercontinental
missiles (Associated Press).
ECONOMIC
DEPENDENCY

*India should reduce


dependency on fossil fuels

*The Economic Survey 2017 says


India, which signed Paris
agreement on climate change in
Dec 2015, will now shift its focus
to implementing the pact
10 COMMODITIES MOST
EXPORTED FROM INDIA AND
THEIR DOLLAR VALUE
Petroleum products:
Value - 61.2 billion dollars
Precious stones:
Value - 41.2 billion dollars
Automobile:
Value - 14.5 billion dollars
Machinery:
Value - 13.6 billion dollars
Bio-chemicals:
Value - 12 billion dollars
Pharmaceuticals:
Value - 11.7 billion dollars
Cereals:
Value -10.1 billion dollars
Iron and steel:
Value -9 billion dollars
Textile:
Value -9 billion dollars
Electronics:
Value -9 billion dollars
TRADING PARTNERS

India's eastern neighbour China has


emerged as its biggest trading
partner in the current fiscal
replacing theUAEand pushing it
to the third spot, according to a
study conducted by PHD Chamber
of Commerce.
HEALTH
HEALTH CARE SYSTEM
Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE)

35% of poor Indian households incur


CHE

25% of India's population had some


form of health insurance in 2010

17% of India's population was insured


PUBLIC AND PRIVATE
HEALTHCARE
According to National Family Health
Survey-3, the private medical sector
remains the primary source of health
care

70% of households in urban areas

63% of households in rural areas


RURAL HEALTH
TheNational Rural Health Mission(NRHM) was
launched in April 2005 by the Government of
India. The goal of the NRHM was to provide
effective healthcare to rural people with a focus
on 18 states which have poor public health
indicators and/or weak infrastructure. It has
18,000 ambulances and a workforce of 900,000
community health volunteers and 178,000 paid
staff.
only 2% of doctors are in rural areas - where 68%
of the population live
URBAN HEALTH
The National Urban Health Mission as a
sub-mission of National Health Mission
was approved by the Cabinet on 1 May
2013. It aims to meet health care needs
of the urban population with the focus on
urban poor, by making available to them
essential primary health care services and
reducing their out of pocket expenses for
treatment.
HEALTH
TheConstitution of Indiamakeshealth
in Indiathe responsibility of the
governments, rather than the central
federal government. It makes every state
responsible for "raising the level of
nutritionand thestandard of livingof its
people and the improvement of
public healthas among its primary
duties".
MALNUTRITION
According to a 2005 report, 60% of
Indias children below the age of
three were malnourished, which was
greater than the statistics of sub-
Saharan African of 28%. It is
considered that one in every three
malnourished children in the world
lives in India.
HIGH INFANT MORTALITY
RATE
Despite health improvements over
the last thirty years, lives continue
to be lost to early childhood
diseases, inadequate newborn care
and childbirth-related causes. More
than two million children die every
year from preventable infections.
Approximately 1.72 million children
die each year before turning one.

The under five mortality and infant


mortality rates have been declining,
from 202 and 190 deaths per
thousand live births respectively in
1970 to 64 and 50 deaths per
thousand live births in 2009.
POPULATION

India is the second most


populous country in the world,
while China is on the top. India
represents almost 17.85% of the
world's population, which means
one out of six people on this
planet live in India.
POPULATION
Current 1,349,547,381 (1.34 billion) As
Population of of April 01, 2017
India in 2017

Total Male 696,906,267 (69.6 crore)


Population in
India
Total No of 652,641,113 (65.2 crore)
Females in India
Sex Ratio 945 females per 1,000 males
Age structure
0 to 25 years 50% of India's current population
Currently, there are about 51 births in India in a
minute.
About 72.2% of the population lives in
some 638,000 villages and the rest
27.8% in about 5,480 towns and urban
agglomerations.

The birth rate (child births per 1,000


people per year) is 22.22 births/1,000
population (2009 est.)

Death rate (deaths per 1000 individuals


per year) is 6.4 deaths/1,000 population.
GDP
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in India
was worth 2095.40 billion US dollars in
2015. The GDP value of India represents
3.38 percent of the world economy. GDP
in India averaged 484.96 USD Billion from
1960 until 2015, reaching an all time high
of 2095.40 USD Billion in 2015 and a
record low of 37.68 USD Billion in 1960.
india GDP Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit

DP Growth Rate 1.60 1.80 5.80 -1.80 percent [+]

DP Annual Growt 7.00 7.40 11.40 -5.20 percent [+]

Rate

[+]
DP 2095.40 2042.44 2095.40 37.68 USD Billion
[+]
DP Constant Pric 30278.93 29734.44 30278.93 7500.43 INR Billion
s
[+]
ross National Pr 56738.60 54166.60 56738.60 2786.77 INR Billion
duct

ross Fixed Capit 8797.63 8601.50 9084.49 2021.90 INR Billion [+]

l Formation

[+]
DP per capita 1750.60 1647.30 1750.60 307.40 USD
[+]
DP per capita PP 5730.14 5391.69 5730.14 1755.74 USD

DP From Agricult 5418.51 3179.76 5418.51 2690.55 IND Billion [+]

re

[+]
DP From Constru 2184.66 2094.34 2201.95 1856.54 IND Billion
tion

DP From Manufac 4756.18 4947.73 5010.02 3305.81 IND Billion [+]

uring

[+]
DP From Mining 896.84 698.77 930.58 551.10 IND Billion
The gross domestic product (GDP) measures of
national income and output for a given country's
economy. The gross domestic product (GDP) is
equal to the total expenditures for all final
goods and services produced within the country
in a stipulated period of time. This page
provides the latest reported value for - India
GDP - plus previous releases, historical high and
low, short-term forecast and long-term
prediction, economic calendar, survey consensus
and news. India GDP - actual data, historical
chart and calendar of releases - was last
updated on April of 2017.
LIFE EXPECTANCY

66.21 years (2012)

Male - 66.9

Female - 69.9

Total - 68.3

World Rank 123


TOP 10 CAUSES OF DEATH
INDIA
1. Coronary Heart Disease

2. Lung Disease

3. Stroke

4. Diarrhoeal Diseases

5. Influenza and Pneumonia

6. Falls

7. Tuberculosis

8. Low Birth Weight

9. Diabetes Mellitus

10. Liver Disease


PAKISTA
N
POVERTY
In Pakistan, 12.4% of the popula
tion lives below the national po
verty line.
In Pakistan, 50.7% of the popul
ation aged 15 years and above i
s employed.
For every 1,000 babies born in Pa
kistan, 66 die before their first
birthday.
CAUSES OF POVERTY
Vicious Circle of Poverty
Unemployment
Lack of Foreign Investment
Low National Income
Use of Backward Technology
Dishonesty & Corruption
Poor Governance
MEASURES TO REMOVE
POVERTY
1-Poverty can be removed by broking thevicious circle of
poverty.
2-Control on inflationis compulsory to eliminate the
poverty.
3-Government should provide more facilities to investors
toincrease the investmenttoreduce the unemployment.
4-Use ofmodern techaniquesof production and subsidies
in utility charges is necessary.
5-Development ofagriculture and industrialsector will
reduce the poverty in Pakistan.
6-Government should make easy, more and in time
availability of various types ofcredits.
7-We shouldsave moreto reduce the poverty.
8-Govt. should reduce therate of taxand increase the rate
ofcapitalformation.
9-Govt. should allocatemore funds for educationto
increase the literacy rate.
10-Proper maintenance oflaw and orderin necessary to
remove the poverty.
RESOUCE
DEGRADATION
IN PAKISTAN
RESOURCE
DEGRADATION

Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Noise Pollution
Climate Change
ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES
OF ENVIRONMENTAL
DEGRADATION
70% of Pakistans population live
in rural areas and are already
stricken by high poverty levels
WATER POLLUTION
The sources for water pollution include the
overuse of chemical fertilizers, the dumping
of industrial wastes into lakes and rivers,
untreated sewage being dumped into the
ocean, and contaminated pipelines being
used to transport water.

45% of infant deaths are due to diarrhea


and 60% to overall waterborne diseases
NOISE POLLUTION

The main source of this pollution is


the traffic noise caused by busses,
cars, trucks,rickshawsand water
tankers.

This high level of noise pollution


can cause auditory and non-
auditory health issues
AIR POLLUTION
"Pakistan's urban air pollution is
among the most severe in the
world and it engenders significant
damages to human health and the
economy.
CLIMATE CHANGE
According to the Pakistan Economic
Survey of 2014-15,[12]the "increase in
frequency and intensity of extreme
weather events coupled with erratic
monsoon rains causing frequent and
intense floods and droughts" are the
most prominent problems Pakistan
will face due to climate change.
HEALTH
Pakistanas a developing country is struggling in many fields
in which the health system has suffered a lot, resulting in a
122 rank out of 190 countries in a World Health Organization
performance report. Pakistan per capita income (PPP current
international $, 2013) is 5,041 and the total expenditure on
health per capita (intl $, 2014) is 129, which is only 2.6% of
GDP (2014). The gender inequality in Pakistan is 0.536 and
ranks the country 147 out of 188 countries (2004). The total
adult literacy rate in Pakistan is 55% (2014) and primary
school enrolment is 73%. Life expectancy at birth is 66 years
(Male 65, female 67), which is the lowest in comparison to
south Asian countries. The proportion of population which
has access to improved drinking water and sanitation is 91%
(2015) and 64% (15) respectively.
HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE
Thehealth caredelivery system includes both state and
non-state; and profit and not for profit service provision.
The provincial and district health departments, para-
statal organizations, social security institutions, non-
governmental organizations (NGOs) and private sector
finance and provide services mostly through vertically
managed disease-specific mechanisms. The countrys
health sector is also marked by urban-rural disparities in
healthcare delivery and an imbalance in the health
workforce, with insufficient health managers, nurses,
paramedics and skilled birth attendants in the peripheral
areas.
HEALTH STATUS
Communicable diseases have
always been the prime cause of
mortalities in Pakistan.
Acute Respiratory Infection
Viral Hepatitis
Malaria
Diarrhea
POPULATION
Pakistan Population:

195,738,191as of Saturday, April


1, 2017, based on the latest
United Nations estimates.
Pakistanpopulation is equivalent
to2.62%of thetotal world
population.

Pakistanranks number6in the list


ofcountries (and dependencies) by
population.

The population density in Pakistan


is 255 per Km2(661 people per mi2).
The total land area is 770,998
Km2 (297,684 sq. miles)
39.2 %of the population
isurban(77,107,125 people in
2017)
Themedian agein Pakistan
is22.7 years.
INTERNATIONAL
CONFLICT
Kashmir conflict: Tension on the
India Pakistan border

Kashmir's Line of Control is the


de facto border between India and
Pakistan in the contested region,
where tensions have been high
since a recent militant attack.
ECONOMIC
DEPENDENCY
*Pakistan is aid dependant
*Pakistans
debt servicing burden has once aga
in reached unsustainable levels
.
*The State Bank of Pakistans data shows
that the
total external debt and liabilities are no
w over $60 billion
, while domestic debt stands at Rs6,231
billion which is even higher ($66 billion
at the current exchange rate).
TOP EXPORTS
Cotton: US$4 billion (18.3% of total exports)
Miscellaneous textiles, worn clothing: $3.8 billion
(17%)
Knit or crochet clothing, accessories: $2.4 billion
(10.7%)
Clothing, accessories (not knit or crochet): $2.1
billion (9.6%)
Cereals: $1.9 billion (8.8%)
Leather/animal gut articles: $687.6 million (3.1%)
Salt, sulphur, stone, cement: $507.6 million (2.3%)
Raw hides, skins not furskins, leather: $425.1
million (1.9%)
Fruits, nuts: $415.3 million (1.9%)
Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $369.2
million (1.7%)
Percentage of total
Country Percentage of imports Percentage of exports
trade

China 11.7 11.1 16.9

European Union 10.4 18.2 13.0

United Arab Emirates 12.1 8.5 10.9

Saudi Arabia 12.2 8.5 9.0

United States 3.2 13.6 6.7

Kuwait 6.3 0.07 4.4

India 3.7 2.1 3.2

Malaysia 9 0.9 2.9

Japan 3.6 1.6 2.9

Iran 3.4 1.8 2.9

Afghanistan 0.3 7.6 2.8

Singapore 4.1 0.3 2.8


UNEMPLOYMENT
Unemployment Rate in Pakistan
decreased to 5.90 percent in the
fourth quarter of 2015 from 6 percent
in the fourth quarter of 2014.
Unemployment Rate in Pakistan
averaged 5.46 percent from 1985
until 2015, reaching an all time high
of 7.80 percent in the second quarter
of 2002 and a record low of 3.10
percent in the fourth quarter of 1987
Pakistan Labour Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit

Unemployment R 5.90 6.00 7.80 3.10 percent [+]


ate

Employed Person 57420.00 56520.00 57420.00 26961.00 Thousand [+]


s

Unemployed Pers 3620.00 3580.00 3730.00 903.00 Thousand [+]


ons

Population 193.56 189.87 193.56 45.85 Million [+]

Wages High Skill 43600.00 51100.00 51100.00 40000.00 PKR/Month [+]


ed

Living Wage Fami 30447.80 30325.80 31289.80 30325.80 PKR/Month [+]


ly

Living Wage Indiv 16967.10 16909.20 17723.60 16909.20 PKR/Month


idual
CAUSES OF
UNEMPLOYMENT IN
PAKISTAN
GROWTH OF POPULATION
POOR EDUCATION SYSTEM
VIOLENCE AND TERROR ACTIVITIES
ENERGY CRISIS
AFGHANS REFUGEES
SOLUTION OF
UNEMPLOYMENT IN PAKISTAN

The first thing to do to reduce unemployment in Pakistan


is the proper planning by the government of Pakistan.
The education system of Pakistan should be equal and well
managed.
Well recognized training and technical institutions are
need to be established where skills programs are offered.
The age of retirement should be at least 55 years.
Remove energy crisis so that investor comes to Pakistan
thus job placement will automatically be created.
There should be peace across the country so foreigners
will not hesitate to invest in Pakistan.
The agriculture sector should be developed.
Jobs should be given purely on merits.
Encourage multinational companies to business in
Pakistan.
Family planning centers should be opened to control the
flow of over population.
GDP
232.3billion USD (2013)
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in
Pakistan expanded 4.71 percent in 2016
from the previous year. GDP Growth
Rate in Pakistan averaged 4.91 percent
from 1952 until 2016, reaching an all
time high of 10.22 percent in 1954 and
a record low of -1.80 percent in 1952.
Pakistan GDP Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit

[+]
GDP Growth Rate 4.71 4.04 10.22 -1.80 percent

[+]
GDP Annual Growth 4.71 4.04 10.22 -1.80 percent
Rate

[+]
GDP 271.05 244.36 271.05 3.71 USD Billion

GDP Constant Price 11777594.00 11138150.00 11777594.00 8216160.00 PKR Million


[+]

s
[+]
Gross National Prod 12465443.00 11687052.00 12465443.00 3778155.00 PKR Million
uct

[+]
Gross Fixed Capital 1647268.00 1558295.00 1647268.00 1268315.00 PKR Million
Formation

GDP per capita 1142.70 1114.20 1142.70 304.69 USD


[+]

GDP per capita PPP 4706.18 4588.64 4706.18 3056.97 USD


[+]

GDP From Agricultu 2206357.00 2210647.00 2210647.00 1775346.00 PKR Million


[+]

re

GDP From Construct 287569.00 254251.00 287569.00 186380.00 PKR Million


[+]

ion

GDP From Manufact 1513752.00 1441679.00 1513752.00 1065323.00 PKR Million


[+]

uring

GDP From Mining 331853.00 310715.00 331853.00 254345.00 PKR Million


[+]

[+]
GDP From Services 6584437.00 6228669.00 6584437.00 4324274.00 PKR Million

[+]
GDP From Transport 1479021.00 1421265.00 1479021.00 959499.00 PKR Million
LIFE EXPECTANCY
66.44 years (2012)

Male 65.5

Female 67.5

Total 66.4

World Rank - 127


TOP 10 CAUSES OF
DEATH PAKISTAN
1. Coronary Heart Disease

2. Stroke

3. Influenza and Pneumonia

4. Lung Disease

5. Tubercolosis

6. Diabetes Mellitus

7. Diarrhoeal Disease

8. Low Birth Weight

9. Other Injuries

10. Breast Cancer


URBAN PLANNING
Pakistan is rapidly urbanising. It
is estimated that by 2030,
Pakistan will be predominantly
urban, with 45.6 per cent of its
population living in urban areas
and 12 cities housing over a
million people each.
Islamabad is located in thePothohar
Plateauin the northern part ofPakistan
, within theIslamabad Capital Territory.
Islamabad is a well-organized city
divided into different sectors and zones.
It is regarded as the most developed
city in Pakistan. It was ranked as a
Gamma world cityin 2008.
COMPLETED
DEVELOPMENTS
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
Islamabad Highway
Jinnah-Faisal Avenue Interchange
Zero Point Interchange
Islamabad Stock Exchange Towers
Telecom Tower
DEVELOPMENTS UNDER
CONSTRUCTION
Islamabad International Airport

Margalla Avenue

Canyon Views (Emaar)

Grand Hyatt

The Centaurus

InterContinental hote
FISCAL POLICY
Government Expenditure
Current Expenditure
Development Expenditure
SIX MAJOR HEADS OF
CURRENT EXPENDITURE OF
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT OF
PAKISTAN
1.Defence,
2.Debt servicing,
3.Subsidies and grants,
4.General administrative,
5.Social services, and
6.Others
DEFICIT FINANCING IN
PAKISTAN
Following are the sources of deficit
financing in Pakistan:
Printing new currency notes
Public borrowings
Foreign loans, aid and grants
Using previous balances, and
Borrowings from banks including
from the central bank