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Introduction to Thermodynamics

Principles of Engineering

Rub your hands together for 15 seconds.

Are your hands warm?

Thermal energy

The study of the effects of work, heat
flow, and energy on a system
Movement of thermal energy
Engineers use thermodynamics in
systems ranging from nuclear power
plants to electrical components.




Thermal Energy Versus Temperature Thermal Energy is kinetic energy in transit from one object to another due to temperature difference. (Degrees) Temperature #1 Temperature #2 4 Heat . (Joules) Temperature is the average kinetic energy of particles in an object—not the total amount of kinetic energy particles.

Temperature Scales Scale Freezing Boiling point point of water of water Celsius 0 °C 100 °C Fahrenheit 32 °F 212 °F Kelvin 273 K 373 K Matter is made up of molecules in motion (kinetic energy) An increase in temperature increases motion A decrease in temperature decreases motion Absolute Zero occurs when all kinetic energy is removed from a object 0 K = -273° C 5 .

Object #1 (Thermometer) Object #1 Object #2 Object #2 6 Object #3 . Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: If two systems are separately found to be in thermal equilibrium with a third system. the first two systems are in thermal equilibrium with each other. the system loses its ability to do work. When thermal equilibrium is reached.Thermodynamic Equilibrium Thermal equilibrium is obtained when touching objects within a system reach the same temperature.

Thermal Energy (heat) Transfer The transfer or movement of thermal energy Most common types of transfer –Convection –Conduction –Radiation 100% efficiency is unattainable ALL processes are irreversible 7 .

– Thermal energy can be increased within a system by adding thermal energy (heat) or by performing work in a system. but it cannot be created or destroyed. 8 .1st Law of Thermodynamics Law of energy conservation applied to a thermal system – Thermal energy can change form and location.

First Law of Thermodynamics Example: Using a bicycle pump Pumping the handle results in what? – Applying mechanical energy into the system – Mechanical energy is converted into thermal energy as you push (do work) on the piston and compress the air The total increase in internal energy of the system is equal to what? – The applied mechanical energy © 9 .

com Pizza → Hand 10 . thermal energy flows in what direction? ©iStockphoto.Second Law of Thermodynamics Thermal energy flows from hot to cold When you touch a frozen pizza with your Hand → Pizza When you touch a cooked pizza with your hand. thermal energy flows in what direction? ©iStockphoto.

but the availability of that energy constantly decreases.A system tends to go from order to disorder Order Disorder Firewood has low entropy (molecules in order) when stacked and high entropy when burning (molecules in disorder). The total amount of energy in the world does not change. .Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy is the measure of how evenly distributed heat is within a system. 11 .

becomes less dense. it expands.Thermal Energy Transfer Convection The transfer of thermal energy by movement of fluid (liquid or gas) When fluid is heated. 12 . and rises. Boiler heating systems circulate heat throughout a home without pumps through the use of convection.

©iStockphoto. The heat from the soup is conducted through the 13 .Thermal Energy Transfer Conduction The transfer of thermal energy within an object or between objects from molecule to molecule A metal spoon placed in a hot cup of soup will feel warm to your hand.

Thermal Energy Transfer Equations Q = m cΔT  Q = energy transfer (Joules) m = mass of the material (kilograms) c =specific heat capacity of the material (J/kgoC ) ΔT = change in temperature 14 .

Thermal Energy Transfer Equations Q k AΔT P L P= P= k= Δt L  AΔT P = rate of energy transfer (Watts) Q = energy transfer (Joules) Δt = change in time (seconds) k = thermal conductivity A = area of thermal conductivity L = thickness of material ΔT = difference in temperature 15 .

0 °C is placed in Q 1.0 °C = 50.00 liter (1 kg) of water at 25.0 °C – 30.0 °C 16 .Calculating Energy Transfer Calculate the energy transferred when a block of aluminum at 80.0 °C J cAl = 900.0 °C if the final temperature becomes 30.0 °C = 5. List all known values Mass of water = mwater = 1 kg J Specific heat capacity of water = cw= 4184 kg ×o C change in temperature = ΔTwater = 30.0°C – 25. Step 1. kg ×o C change in temperature = ΔTAl = 80.0 °C.

00kg) • 4184 o  5. Select equations to solve unknown values Q = m c ΔT  Q Al = Q water Step 4. List all unknown values Q = energy transferred mAl = mass of the Al block Step 3.0 C = 21.Calculating Energy Transfer Step 2. Solve for Qwater J Q water = (1. 000 J gained o kg × C 17 .

0o C kg oC m Al = 0.46 kg = 460g 18 .920J m Al = = c Al ΔT 900.Calculating Energy Transfer Step 5. J 50. Solve for mAl Q Al (lost) = Q water (gained) = 20.920 J Q Al = m Al c Al ΔT Q Al 20.

10.04 m Difference in temperature = ΔT = 10 °C – 5 °C = 5 °C Change in time = Δt = 1 hour = 3600 s 19 .04 m thick with a J Q thermal conductivity of 0. s × m × °C Opposing sides of the wall section have a temperature of 10 °C and 5 °C after one hour. Step 1.10 s× m×o C Thickness of material = L = 0.Calculating Energy Transfer Calculate the energy transfer in a wall section measuring 2 m by 1 m by 0. List all known values Area of thermal conductivity = A = 2 m * 1 m = 2 m2 J Thermal conductivity = k =0.

Select equations to solve unknown values Q kA  T P= P= Δt L Step 4. Solve in terms of Q  Q = PΔt Step 5.Calculating Energy Transfer Step 2. Combine equations  kAΔT Q=(  )Δt L 20 . List all unknown values P = Rate of energy transfer Q = Energy transfer Step 3.

10 smJ C 2m 2  5 C Q=  3600s  0.Calculating Energy Transfer Step 6. Apply known values    kAΔT Q =Δt    L   0.000J 21 .04m  Q = 90.

U-Value Coefficient of Heat Conductivity The measure of a material’s ability to conduct heat P U= AΔT W Metric system   m 2  °C  Btu   U. customary system ft 2  hr   °F  22 .S.

the higher the resistance 1 P R= U= U AΔT Bulk R-value = R-value Object 1 + R-value Object 2 + … = Total 23 R-Value .R-Value Thermal Resistance of a Material The measure of a material’s ability to resist heat The higher the R-value.

17 = 27.8 + 0.88 + 0.6 2 x 6 construction 24 (2 x 6 R = 6.17) 5/8 in.20 + 6.56) (R = 0.Calculating R-Value Determine the R-value of the wall cavity below 1 in.20 + 0.56 + 7.00 0. foil-faced polyisocyanurate Fiberglass batt (R = 7.56 +19.7 + 0.17 + 7. air space (R = 0.8) Wall cavity R-value What is the R-value at a stud location? 0.88) . drywall Brick 2 ¼ x 3 ½ x 8 (R = 0.8 =15.20) (R = 19) 1 in.

com Electromagnetic waves transfer 4 4 Pnet =σAe(T 2 .6696x10 W -8 T  temperature in Kelvin m2 ×K 4 25 A =area . as electromagnetic waves Stefan’s Law All objects lose and gain thermal energy by electromagnetic radiation.Thermal Energy Transfer Radiation The process by which energy is transmitted through a medium.T ) 1 to food and other matter P =radiated energy transfer e  emissivity constant σ =Stefan's constant =5. including empty space. ©iStockphoto.

90 Stefan’s constant = σ = 5.6696•10-8 W ©iStockphoto.Thermal Energy Transfer Prior to dressing for school.90. a student watches the morning weather to decide what clothes to wear. Note: Skin emissivity is 0.30m Emissivity constant =e=0.s 26 .4°F 2 Change in time = t = 15. and the surface area of the student is 1. List all known values 2 Area =A=1.0 minutes spent watching the morning weather.4 ºF. Determine the net energy transfer from the student’s body during the 15.0 minutes = 900. Step 1. The bedroom is 65 ºF and the student’s skin is 91.30 m m2 ×K4 Bedroom temperature =T1=65°F Skin temperature =T =91.

List all unknown values P = Rate of energy transfer Q = Energy transfer ©iStockphoto.48K 27 .com Step 3.T1 ) 4 4 91.4°F =306.15K Solve for( T2 .T 14)  Q = PΔt 4 4 Step 4. Select equations to solve unknown values Pnet =σAe(T 2 4.Thermal Energy Transfer Step 2.T ) 1 65°F =291. Apply known values to Pnet =σAe( T2 .

Combine equations and solve Q = PΔt ©iStockphoto. Apply known values to Pnet =σAe T 2 .T 1 4   Step 5. .500J spent watching the morning 28 weather.s the student’s body during the 15 minutes Q =93.Thermal Energy Transfer 4 Step 4 (continued).com 93.92W  900.500 J of energy are transferred from Q =103.

Applications of Thermal Energy 29 .nrel.

energy.Examples of Solar Energy All images were obtained from the following URL: 30 .eere.

Geothermal Energy Energy generated from the thermal energy stored beneath the Earth’s surface Also refers to the heat that is collected from the atmosphere. for instance. near the oceans 31 .

d. 2008. Retrieved March 23. (2007).nasa.).nrel. from http://www. Retrieved March 23. (2008). NASA. 2008. 2008. (2nd ed. Glenn research 32 .gov/centers/glenn/home/index. Energy kid’s page. ( U.doe.eere. New York.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved March 23.). (2008). 2008 from http://www.html National Renewable Energy Laboratory.eia. from http://www. Retrieved March McGraw-Hill dictionary of engineering. Solar energy technologies program. NY: McGraw-Hill.Resources Energy Information Association. from http://www1.