You are on page 1of 66

MiCOM P140 Series

Feeder Management Relays

Speaker name
Speaker title

EAI, Stafford - dd/mm/yy


MiCOM 40 Series design
Building blocks forming a total solution

P940 Frequency Protection Relays

P540 Line Current Differential Relays

P440 Distance Protection Relays

P340 Generator Protection Relays

P240 Motor Management Relays

P140 Feeder Management Relays

3 > Title of presentation - Date - References 3


MiCOM 40 Series

Comprehensive Protection Solutions at all Power System levels:


Generation
Integrated Generator Protection
Transmission
Distance Protection
Line Differential
Distribution
Feeder Management
Loadshedding
Industrial
Motor Management
Interconnection Protection

4 > Title of presentation - Date - References 4


Features for Flexible Solutions

Configurable
Interface
Dual Rated Programmable
CT Inputs LEDs

Flexible
Communications
Secure Comprehensive
Recording

Programmable
Scheme Logic

5 > Title of presentation - Date - References 5


MiCOM 40 Series Benefits

Optimised Costs;
High Level of Integration
Increased Plant Availability
Comprehensive Monitoring
Post Fault Analysis Tools
Condition Based Maintenance
Adaptable to evolving systems
Flexibility
Download/monitor port
Minimal Spares Holding

6 > Title of presentation - Date - References 6


MiCOM 40 Series Benefits

Familiarity; Common Hardware


Menu Access & Navigation
Support Software
Technical Documentation
Reduced Training

Common Protection Settings


Elements; Structure

Product Evolution; New Products


New Communications
Options

7 > Title of presentation - Date - References 7


Front Panel

Alarm viewer

Menu browser
Fixed
function
LEDs
Programmable
LEDs

Battery
back-up Download/
Monitor port

Local
communications Security seal

8 > Title of presentation - Date - References 8


P140 Series - Models

P141 Feeder Management Relay

P142 With integral auto-reclose

P143 With integral auto-reclose


and check synchronism

9 > Title of presentation - Date - References 9


Management or Protection?

Fault
Analysis Tools
Comprehensive
Protection Measurements

Communications
Bay Monitoring
& Control

Self Diagnostics
& Commissioning
Tools

10 > Title of presentation - Date - References 10


Comprehensive Protection

11 > Title of presentation - Date - References 11


Protection Needs

Protection
functionality
required is system
dependent
Solid

PR0 PP0 TP0 TR0

Resistive Petersen
coil

TPI
PPI
PRI TRI
B/S

12 > Title of presentation - Date - References 12


Plain Radial Feeders

Busbar Busbar
CB CB

Time delayed phase overcurrent Breaker failure


51 50BF
Time delayed earth fault Broken conductor detection
51N 46BC
Thermal overload Negative sequence overcurrent
49 46
Auto-reclose (Auto-reclose
79 with sequence co-ordination)

13 > Title of presentation - Date - References 13


Transformers/Transformer Feeders

Busbar Busbar
HVCB LBCB

REF CT
SBEF CT

Instantaneous phase O/C Time Delayed Standby


50 51SBEF
Earth Fault

Restricted Earth Fault


64

14 > Title of presentation - Date - References 14


Parallel Feeders

Busbar Busbar
HVCB LVCB

REF CT
SBEF CT

HVCB LVCB

REF CT
SBEF CT

67 Directional phase O/C


67N Directional earth fault

15 > Title of presentation - Date - References 15


Overcurrent Protection

Fully flexible overcurrent protection


Four independent stages
Choice of directionality (per stage)
Operative for close-up faults
Enhanced flexibility for T
schemes
e.g. Blocked overcurrent
protection
Parallel feeders

0 Current

16 > Title of presentation - Date - References 16


Overcurrent Protection (2)

IEC Curves
Operating Time (s)
1000 IEC SI
Four independent stages
IEC VI
IEC EI IDMT/DT stage 1 & 2
IEC LTS
100 DT on stages 3 & 4
Each stage:
Non directional
10
Directional forward
Directional reverse
1 Memory polarising
IEC & IEEE IDMT curves
0.1
1 10 100
Current (Multiples of Is)

17 > Title of presentation - Date - References 17


Overcurrent Protection (3)

IEEE Curves
Operating Time (s)
100 US MI
US VI
Comprehensive setting
US EI ranges
US I
US SI 8% - 400% stages 1 & 2
10 8% - 3200% stages 3 & 4
TMS range: 0.025 to 1.2
Time dial: 0.01 to 100
1 Definite time: 0 to 100s
Phase segregated
contacts/indication

0.1
Per stage starts &
1 10 100 blocking inputs
Current (Multiples of Is)
Adjustable reset time
18 > Title of presentation - Date - References 18
Application of Two IDMT Curves (1)

Busbar Busbar
CB 1 CB 3

P141 CB 5
1 3
CB 2 CB 4 P142
5

P141
2
4

67 First IDMT Curve I>1 FWD


67 Second IDMT Curve I>2

19 > Title of presentation - Date - References 19


Application of Two IDMT Curves (2)

Busbar Busbar
CB 1 CB 3

P141 CB 5
1 3
CB 2 CB 4 P142
5

P141
2
4

67 First IDMT Curve I>1 FWD


67 Second IDMT Curve I>2

20 > Title of presentation - Date - References 20


Overcurrent Protection

Time
Current setting
1/2 Existing practices
3/4 Sensitivity
5 Relay thermal withstand
3/4
DIR
Load current reversal
Time setting
IDMT
Definite time
IFL I3 LV I3 HV

21 > Title of presentation - Date - References 21


Earth Fault Protection

Standard E/F Standard E/F


Measured Derived
Sensitive
Directional E/F Sensitive
E/F

Directional
E/F Measured Wattmetric E/F

Directional High Impedance


E/F Derived REF

Neutral Voltage Low Impedance


Displacement REF

22 > Title of presentation - Date - References 22


Earth Fault Application
Frame Leakage

Busbar Busbar Frame

(EF2) a,b,c
SEF

EF1
Frame to
earth Fault

51 Time delayed phase overcurrent


51N Time delayed earth fault (EF2) 64 Frame Leakage (EF1)
51SEF Sensitive earth fault
64 Trf. Restricted E/F
(low impedance
differential)

23 > Title of presentation - Date - References 23


Earth Fault Application
Frame Leakage

Busbar Busbar Frame

(EF2) a,b,c
SEF

EF1
Frame to
earth Fault

51SEF SEF Pick up + 64 Frame Leakage (EF1) = TRIP

51N Time delayed earth fault (EF2) = BACKUP TRIP

24 > Title of presentation - Date - References 24


Application DEF
Negative Sequence Polarisation

Busbar Busbar
CB CB

P141
1 3
CB 3 Limb VT CB

P141
2
4

Fault direction is determined


by comparison of the 67N Directional earth fault
Negative Phase Sequence
(NPS) voltage with NPS
current
25 > Title of presentation - Date - References 25
Application of Residual Overvoltage
Protection (Neutral Displacement)

LV HV Busbar
CB CB

Trip
V A CB

5 Limb VT
VA
59 Residual Overvoltage
(Neutral Displacement)

VC A Phase
VB
to Earth
Fault

26 > Title of presentation - Date - References 26


Earth Fault Protection (4)
Example Scheme: Benefits

Line CTs for DEF and non-


DEF
Single neutral CT for SBEF
and low Z REF 1000/1A

No external differential
IDMT DEF
connection
IDMT E/F
Different ratios permissible SBEF
200/1A
Low Z REF
Polarising options for DEF
1000/1A High Z REF
Allows 3-limb VTs

27 > Title of presentation - Date - References 27


Low Impedance REF (1)

Line CTs - Ratio 1000/1

In
No
stabilising
resistor
No non
linear
resistors
28 > Title of presentation - Date - References 28
Low Impedance REF (2)

IBias = (Highest of IA, IB or IC) + (IN x scaling factor)

Where scaling factor = Neutral CT ratio

Line CT ratio

(= 200 = 0.2 in this case)

1000

IDiff = IA+ IB + IC + (Scaling factor x IN)

29 > Title of presentation - Date - References 29


Low Impedance REF (3)

I
DIFF

Operate K2

Restrain

K1
I
S1

I S2 I BIAS

30 > Title of presentation - Date - References 30


Back-Up Protection

Two options available in P14* relays:-


Voltage controlled overcurrent
Relatively simple to set
Requires sufficient voltage dip for initiation
Negative phase sequence overcurrent
Not dependent on voltage dip
Responsive to phase-phase or phase-earth faults
Directional capability
More complex setting calculation

31 > Title of presentation - Date - References 31


Back-Up Protection (1)

11kV 100A Load


Busbar Load
100A
2MVA 3.3kV
Source 2000A 100A
Load
5%
Fault
P14* Problems:-
P14*
Fault current may be less than rating of
incomer
Grading with generator protection
Grading on interconnected systems

100A
Load

32 > Title of presentation - Date - References 32


Application Voltage Controlled Overcurrent
Protection (51V)
Busbar Time
CB 2

CB 3

CB 2

CB2
CB2

CB 3
51V Voltage Controlled Overcurrent
Isubstation full load

33 > Title of presentation - Date - References 33


Application
Negative Sequence Overcurrent

HV LV
I1 + I2 I1 + I2 + I0
CB

I0

Earth
Fault
46 Negative sequence
overcurrent

34 > Title of presentation - Date - References 34


Circuit Breaker Failure

Backtrip
Two stage
Fast reset
External initiation
Blocking scheme
Retrip
compatible
Trip
BF
INIT

From other device

35 > Title of presentation - Date - References 35


Overload Protection (1)

Overcurrent protection designed for fault condition


Thermal replica provides better protection for
overload
Current based
Flexible characteristics Time

Single or dual time constant


Reset facility
Non-volatile

Current

36 > Title of presentation - Date - References 36


Overload Protection of
Oil-Filled ONAN Transformer

Trip time (s) Dual Time Constant


10000
ForSingle
marginal overloads
characteristic:
replica curve
= 120 mins
dominated by long
time constant
1000

Severe
Marginal
For severeoverload
overload
overloads
replica
requirescurve
dominated by short
100 short timeconstant
longconstant
time time constant

Single
10 characteristic:
1 2 3 4 5 6 = 5 mins
Current (multiple of thermal setting)

37 > Title of presentation - Date - References 37


Voltage Protection (1)

Reasons for voltage deviations:


Regulation problems
Load variation
Fault conditions
Requirements of protection depends upon application:
Line or phase voltage measurement
Operation for all or any phase
Suitable time delays
Alarm/Trip
P14* under/over voltage elements suitable for all
applications

38 > Title of presentation - Date - References 38


Application
Negative Sequence Overvoltage

Loss of upstream phase supply


Busbar

CB Motor
a
b
c

Block
CB Close

Motor
47 Negative Sequence Overvoltage

39 > Title of presentation - Date - References 39


Broken Conductor Protection (1)

Majority of system faults are a result of short circuits


Easily detectable
Possibility of open circuit faults exist
Difficult to detect with conventional protection

40 > Title of presentation - Date - References 40


Broken Conductor Detection (2)

Existing detection methods;


Combination of under/overcurrent logic
Negative phase sequence overcurrent
Consider suitability for all load conditions

P14* uses a ratio technique:


I2 is high for open circuit fault condition
I1
Benefit: Load conditions have minimal effect

41 > Title of presentation - Date - References 41


Application of Broken
Conductor Protection

CB HV LV

HV LV
BC Broken Conductor

I2 / I1 is high for open circuit Open


fault condition Phase

Benefit: Load conditions have


minimal effect
42 > Title of presentation - Date - References 42
CT Supervision

A
B
C

Alarms
Blocking
IO
Event
& T record
VO

43 > Title of presentation - Date - References 43


VT Supervision (1)

A
B
C

I and 2
logic

3 on load
logic Alarms
Event record
on
VTS
Blocking
energisation
logic Adaptive
setting
MCB digital
input

44 > Title of presentation - Date - References 44


Cold Load Pick-up Logic

Benefits:
Time
No requirement to use
Energisation period
characteristic alternate setting groups
May eliminate need for earth fault
stabilising resistor
Normal load
Security /dependability on
characteristic
energisation

Energisation
current profile Potential applications:
Motor feeders
HV transformer earth fault
protection
Switch On To Fault (SOTF)
Air conditioning
Current
Resistive heating

47 > Title of presentation - Date - References 47


Blocked Overcurrent Protection

Incomer
Established technique Block high-set
providing: element
Improved fault
clearance times CB fail backtrip

Reduced grading stages


In order to facilitate this
function, P14* provides:
Per stage start signals
Per stage blocking inputs
Supervised field supply
Interaction with CB
failure logic
Feeder 1 Feeder 2 Feeder 3

48 > Title of presentation - Date - References 48


Selective Overcurrent Logic

Alternative approach to achieve non-cascade


protection
Temporarily increases high-set operation time

49 > Title of presentation - Date - References 49


Application
Selective Overcurrent Logic

Busbar CB1 CB2 Busbar

SOL
Input Start

Fault

SOL
SOL Selective Overcurrent Logic Highset
CB1
Highset
CB2 CB1
Start
CB2
Ifault
50 > Title of presentation - Date - References 50
Programmability &
Customerisation

51 > Title of presentation - Date - References 51


Programmability

Multiple settings groups


&
Assignable inputs,
1 outputs and LEDs

& Programmable scheme


logic

52 > Title of presentation - Date - References 52


Flexibility using
Programmable Scheme Logic

Relay
Optos contacts
Gate Logic

Protection
& Communication
elements 1
&
Timers
Control

Fixed LEDs
scheme
logic
User programmable scheme logic

53 > Title of presentation - Date - References 53


Monitoring Circuit

Trip
Circuit breaker

Trip 52a
Trip
coil
Opto
52b

Opto

54 > Title of presentation - Date - References 54


Ease of Use With
Programmable Scheme Logic (1)

L7 52-A

Opto Signal added and


selected from list

55 > Title of presentation - Date - References 55


Programming the Relay

58 > Title of presentation - Date - References 58


Application
Programmable Scheme Logic (1)

Busbar CB Manual CB Close CB Busbar

Status

Phase to Earth
Fault
PSL Programmable Scheme Logic

Manual Close + SEF Pickup = Instantaneous Trip

59 > Title of presentation - Date - References 59


Application
Programmable Scheme Logic (2)

Timer with Pulse


Opto Signal for CB function added
status added

R1 SEF INST TRIP

L7 52-A PU 1000
&

LED 1 (Unlatched)

ISEF>START
LOGIC Gate added

Internal SEF Pickup Trip mapped to


signal added Contact and LED
Indication

60 > Title of presentation - Date - References 60


Programming the Relay

80% of overhead line faults are transient or semi-


permanent
Minimising supply interruptions is essential
Trend to total system automation

AUTO RECLOSE AIDS SUPPLY CONTINUITY

61 > Title of presentation - Date - References 61


Auto-Reclose
Benefits of P142 and P143

Traditionally dedicated, discrete device


Many versions due to differing philosophies and requirements
Benefits of integrating protection and auto-reclose:-
Reduced panel space
Reduced wiring
Reduced cost
Integrated auto-reclose logic needs to be flexible:-
Single and multi-shot
Ability to co-ordinate with other
reclosing equipment
Check synchronising
Variety of operating modes
CB monitoring

62 > Title of presentation - Date - References 62


Application Auto Reclose (1)
Transient Fault

Busbar CB CB Busbar

Healthy

Auto

Tele- Live Line


control AR in progress
Dead Time
Non Auto
Auto Close
79 Auto-reclose (Auto-reclose AR Lockout
with sequence co-ordination) Successful Close

63 > Title of presentation - Date - References 63


Application Auto Reclose (2)
Permanent Fault

Busbar CB CB Busbar

Healthy

Auto

Tele- Live Line


control AR in progress
Dead Time
Non Auto
Auto Close
79 Auto-reclose (Auto-reclose AR Lockout
with sequence co-ordination) Successful Close

64 > Title of presentation - Date - References 64


Fault Locator

16% 3.8 16km 10miles

65 > Title of presentation - Date - References 65


P140 Series
Comprehensive Feeder Protection

ANSI No Protection And Control Features All Models


50/51/67 Instantaneous / time delayed directional overcurrent
50N/51N/67N Instantaneous / time-delayed directional earth fault
67N Sensitive directional earth fault
67W Wattmetric earth fault
64 Restricted earth fault
51V Voltage controlled overcurrent
46 Negative sequence overcurrent
27 Undervoltage
59 Overvoltage
47 Negative sequence overvoltage
59N Residual overvoltage (neutral displacement)
81 U/O Under / over frequency
49 Thermal overload
Cold load pick-up
Selective overcurrent logic
66 > Title of presentation - Date - References 66
P140 Series
Comprehensive Feeder Protection
P14*
ANSI No Protection And Control Features
1 2 3
46BC Fault locator
79 CT supervision
79/25 VT supervision
CB control
CB condition monitoring
CB fail
4 Setting groups
Configuration
Broken conductor
4 shot auto-reclose
4 shot auto-reclose with check synch
8 logic inputs and 7 relay outputs
16 logic inputs and 14 relay outputs

67 > Title of presentation - Date - References 67


Setting the Relay

Highly integrated Protection & Control


solution
Large number of settings

Configuration simplified by:-


Configuration column in menu
Local communication port on relay front plate
Comprehensive support software

68 > Title of presentation - Date - References 68


The Configuration Column

Default setting restoration


Setting group manipulation
Enabling/disabling Protection & Control
functions
Menu cell visible

69 > Title of presentation - Date - References 69