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ELL752

ELECTRIC DRIVE SYSTEMS

Prof. Bhim Singh


Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016, India
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Induction Motor Drives

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Induction Motor Classification
Three phase induction motors are asynchronous
motors and can be classified in two categories:
Squirrel Cage Rotor;
Wound Rotor;
Following are some relations used in the analysis of
any of the above induction motors:
The slip s = (ns-nr)/ns; where ns is synchronous
speed and nr is the actual rotor speed.
Therefore the angular speed r= (1-s) s; and
The rotor frequency fr = s fe; where fe is stator
supply frequency.
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Induction Motor Equivalent circuit

Equivalent circuit of induction motor


Phasor diagram of induction motor

From the equivalent circuit of three phase induction motor:


Power transferred across the air gap Pg = Ir2 (Rr/s);
Rotor power loss = Ir2 Rr = s Pg;
Shaft power = (1-s) Pg
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Induction Motor Torque
The mechanical power or shaft power can also be defined as:
Pshaft = r T = (1-s) s T; where T is developed torque.
From the previous relations:
T= Pshaft / r = Pg /s = Ir2(Rr/s)/s
s = (2/P) e;

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Simplified Equivalent circuit

The developed torque (from above eq ckt):


2
Vseq Rr s
1
T=
s Rseq Rr s 2 X seq X r 2

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T-slip Characteristic

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Maximum Torque
The developed torque shall be maximum when

Rr s R X Xr ;
2 2
seq seq

the slip corresponding to maximum torque

R X Xr
2 2
s max T Rr seq seq

and the maximum torque


2
1 0.5 V seq
Tmax =
s R R 2 X X 2
seq seq seq r
The value of max. torque remains constant for
any value of rotor resistance but the speed at which
it occurs can be directly controlled.
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T-slip Characteristic

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The Inductance Matrix

2 L
L ab L bc L ca L ms cos ms
3 2
2 L
L a r b r L b r c r L c r a r L mr cos mr
3 2
Wre
L sr er L ms cos er
Wse

Three phase induction motor with


equivalent wound rotor

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The Inductance Matrix
The inductances may be now assembled into the so called matrix inductance
a b c ar br cr
a L aa L ab L ac La ra L bra L c r a

b L ab L bb L bc La rb L br b Lcr b
L a , b ,c ,a rr , b rr ,c rr
er c

L ac L bc L cc La rc Lbrc Lcrc

ar La ra La rb La rc La ra r La r br La rcr

br L bra L br b L brc La rbr L br br L brcr
c Lcra Lcr b Lcrc La rcr L brcr L c r c r
r
where: L aa L bb L cc L ls L ms L ab L ms / 2 L ac L ms / 2
L a r a L b r b L c r c L srm cos er L a r a r L b r b r L c r c r Lr lr Lr mr

L c r a L a r b L b r c L srm cos er 2 / 3
L c r b L a r c L b r a L srm cos er 2 / 3
L a r b r Lr mr / 2 L b11r c r Lr mr / 2
Reducing the Rotor to Stator

L srm L ms

i ar i br i cr
r
r r K rs
i ar i br i cr
Var Vbr Vcr 1

Varr Vbrr Vcrr K rs
rr L lr 1

rrr Lrlr K rs 2

So the new inductance matrix L


a , b ,c ,a r , b r ,c r er
is similar to that older matrix,
but with Lr mr L , L. L
ms srm ms

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The Phase Coordinate Model

V r i d
dt
L a ,b,c,a ,b ,c er i
r r r

r Diag rs , rs , rs , rr , rr , rr
V Va , Vb , Vc , Var , Vbr , Vcr T
i i a , i b , i c , i ar , i br , i cr T

V r i L d i d L i der
dt der dt
der
r p r
dt

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The Phase Coordinate Model

1 T d L
i V i r i
T T d 1

dt 2

L i i i i r
T

2 der
1 T d L
Pe Te r i i r
2 der

1 T d L
Te p i i
2 der

J d r der
Te Tload ; r
p dt dt

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The Space Phasor Model

2
ae
j
3
; cos
2
3
Re a ; cos
4
3
Re a 2 ;

cos er
2
3
Re a e j er
;cos


er

4
3
j
Re a e er ;
2



a L ls i a L ms Re i a a i b a 2 i c L ms Re i ar a i br a 2 i cr e jer

ar L lr i ar L ms Re i ar a i br a 2 i cr L ms Re i a a i b a 2 i c e jer
s 2

is ia a i b a 2 ic
3

r 2

i r i ar a i br a 2 i cr
3

s 1
Re i s i a i a i b i c i a i 0
3
1
Re i r i ar i ar i br i cr i ar i 0
r

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The Space Phasor Model

i a i b i c 0; i ar i br i cr 0


s

a L ls Re i s L m Re i s i r e jer ; L m
s s
3
2
L ms


r ar L lr Re i r L m Re i r i s e jer
s r s

s s
V s rs i s
d s
s
s
rs i s L s
di s
Lm
d i r e jer
s
r

dt dt dt
r r
V r rr i r
d r
r
r
rr i r L r
di r
Lm
d i s e jer
r
s

dt dt dt

L s L ls L m ; L r L lr L m

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The Space Phasor Model
d b
b
dt

s s e j b ; i s i s e j b ; V s V s e j b
s b s b s b

r r e j b er ; i r i r e j b er ; V r V r e j b er
r b r b r b

d s
V s rs i s j b s
dt
d r
V r rr i r j b r r
dt
s Ls is L m i r

r L r i r L m is
3
* 3

Te p Re j s i s p Re j r i r
2 2
*

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The Space Phasor Model
We may now decompose in plane the space phasors along two
orthogonal axes d and q moving at speed b

V s Vd j Vq ; i s i d j i q ; s d j q
V r Vdr j Vqr ; i r i dr j i qr ; r dr j qr
d
Vd rs i d d b q
dt
d q
Vq rs i q b d
dt
d
Vdr rr i dr dr b r qr
dt
d qr
Vqr rr i qr b r dr
dt
Te p d i q q i d pL m i q i dr i d i qr
3 3
2 2
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The Space Phasor Model
Vd Va
V 1 P V
q 2
b b
V0 Vc

[P(b)] is the Park transformation:

2 2
cos b cos b cos b
3 3
P b 2 sin b sin b 2
sin b
2

3 3 3
1 1 1

2 2 2

The inverse of Park transformation is:


P b 1 3 P b T
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Example
1. An induction motor has the following parameters:
5 hp, 200V, 3-phase, 60 Hz, 4-pole, star connected; R s 0.277 R r 0.183 , Lm 0.0538 ,
Ls 0.0553 , Lr 0.056 , Stator to rotor turn ratio = 3
The motor is supplied with its rated and balanced voltages. Find the q and d axes steady state voltages
and currents as well as phase currents I qrr , I drr , I and I when the rotor is locked. Use the stator-reference
frame model of the induction machine
Solution:
The applied voltage are as follows:
200 2 2
vas 2 sin s t 163.3sin s t ; vbs 163.3sin s t ; vcs 163.3sin s t
3 3 3
The d and q axes volages are
vqs vas
v T s v
ds abc bs
vo vcs
1
vqs vas 163.3sin bt 163.30; vds vcs vbs j163.390
3
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Example
Rotor is locked; hence,
& 0
r

For steady state evaluation,


p = js j2f s = j377 rad/s
The system equations in steady state
vqs Rs js Ls 0 js Lm 0 i qs
v 0 Rs js Ls 0 js Lm ids

ds

0 js Lm 0 Rr js Lr 0 iqr

0 0 js Lm 0 Rr js Lr idr
iqs 113.87 71.90
ids 113.8118.10
iqr 109.34108.6
idr 109.34 161.4
Note that the stator and rotor currents are displaced by 90 among themseleves, as expected in
a two phase machine. The zero-sequence currents are zero, because zero-sequence voltages are
non-existent with the balanced supply voltage.

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Example
The phase currents are
1 0 1
ias iqs 113.8 71.9

i 1 3 1
i 113.8168.1
bs 2 2 ds
ics io 113.848.1
1 3 1
2 2
Various rotor currents are
i qrr ai qr 328.02108.6
idrr aidr 328.02 161.4
The and current, assuming r 0, are
i cos r sin r idrr 1 0 i drr 328.02 161.4

i i qrr

sin r cos r iqrr 0 1
328.02108.6


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Example
2. A high efficiency induction motor with cage rotor has the data: rated
power Pn = 5kW, rated line voltage (rms) VL = 220V (star connection), rated
frequency f1 = 60Hz, number of pole pairs p = 2, core loss (P iron) =
mechanical loss Pmec = 1.5% of Pn, additional losses padd = 1%Pn, stator per
rotor winding losses pcor/pcos = 2/3, rated efficiency n = 0.9 and power factor
cosn = 0.88.
Calculate all loss components, phase current (rms), then rated slip,
speed, electromagnetic torque, shaft torque and stator current (as space
phasors).

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Example
The input power Pin is: Pout 5000
Pin 5555.55W
n 0.9
The phase current In (rms) is:
Pin 5555.55
In 16.58A
3 VL cos n 3 220 0.88

The total losses are:


p P in Pout 5555.55 5000 555.55W

Consequently: p iron p mec 0.015 5000 75W


p add 0.01 5000 50 W
p cos p cor p p iron p mec p add 555.55 75 75 50 355W

2
p cos p cos 355W
3
p cos 213.3 W; p cor 142 W 24
Example
The electromagnetic power Pe is the active power that crosses the airgap:
1
Pe Pin Pcos p iron Te
p
Pe 5555.55 213 75 5267 W
5267
Te 2 27.956 Nm
260
p cor Sn Pe
The rotor winding loss pcor is:
and thus the rated slip is: 142
Sn 0.02696
The rated speed nn is: 5267
f1
nn 1 Sn 60 1 0.02696 29.1912rps 1751.472rpm
p 2
The shaft torque Tn is calculated directly from mechanical power P n:
P 5000
Tn n 27.274 Nm Te
2n n 2 29.1912
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Example
Finally the amplitude of the stator current is, in synchronous
coordinates (d.c. quantities) are:

i s i n 2 16.58 1.41 23.3778A

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References
1. D.W. Novotny and T.A. Lipo, Vector Control and Dynamics of AC Drives,
Oxford University Press, New York, 1997.
2. I. Boldea and S.A. Nasar, Electric Drives, CRC Press, 1998
3. I. Boldea and S.A. Nasar, Vector Control of AC drives, CRC Press
4. B.K. Bose, Modern Power electronics and AC drives, Pearson Education
India, 2002.
5. P. Vas, Sensorless Vector and Direct Torque Control, Oxford University
Press, 1998.
6. R. Krishnan, Electric Motor drives : Modeling, analysis and control,
Pearson education India, 2003.
7. G.K.Dubey, Power Semiconductor Controlled Drives Prentice Hall, New
Jersey, 1989.

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