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Main Objectives
In this presentation you will be able to:

2. Learn how each parameter in the link budget is

derived (or calculated).

3. Differentiate between customer specific and

vendor specific parameters.
What is a Power Link Budget?

Power
Budget

AAcalculation
calculationof
ofthe
theachievable
achievablepath
pathloss
losswhile
whileaccounting
accountingfor
forall
all
sources
sourcesof
ofgain,
gain,attenuation
attenuationand
andnoise
noise

Tx
Txpower
power+
+All
AllGains
GainsPath
PathLoss
LossOther
Otherlosses
losses=
=Rx
Rxpower
power

Path
Pathloss
loss=
=Tx
TxSignal
Signal++All
AllGains
Gains Other
Otherlosses
losses Rx
Rxpower
power

Max
MaxPath
Pathloss
loss=
=Tx
TxSignal
Signal+
+All
AllGains
Gains Other
Otherlosses
losses Rx
Rxsensitivity
sensitivity

The minimum required received signal strength to achieve the
desired quality of service (measured in BLER) in the presence of a
predicted level of interference.
Interference
o All users use the same frequency.
o Users are separated by code.
o UMTS is an interference limited system
o More load = more interference.

Interference
You !

The minimum required received signal strength to achieve the
desired quality of service (measured in BLER) in the presence of a
predicted level of interference.
Interference
-171+4 dBm/Hz -117 dBm
Case 1

3dB less Rx signal is

interference 3dB less

Case 2 -171+1 dBm/Hz -120 dBm

Signal to Noise Ratio
SNR
SNR::Signal
Signalto
toNoise
NoiseRatio.
Ratio.

Indicates
Indicatesthe
thelevel
levelofofthe
theRx
Rxsignal
signalinincomparison
comparisonto
tothe
thelevel
level
ofofnoise (+ Rx interference) so that communication could
noise (+ Rx interference) so that communication could
be
beestablished
establishedeffectively.
effectively.

SNR
SNR(dB)
(dB)=
=Rx
Rxpower
power--noise
noise

SNR
SNR(dB)
(dB)=
= Tx
Txpower
power+
+all
allgains
gains--path
pathloss
loss--other
otherlosses
losses--noise
noise

Path
Pathloss
loss(dB)
(dB)=
=Tx
Txpower
power++ all
allgains
gains--other
otherlosses
losses--((SNR
SNR++Noise)
Noise)
Added Bit rate bit/s 64000 a
system
noise
converted TX antenna gain dBi 2 c
to noise Body loss dB 0 d
cell due
rise to other TX EIRP per traffic channel dBm 23 e=b+c-d
users
RX antenna gain dBi 18 f
Bit rate RX cable and connector losses dB 3 g
converted
Receiver noise figure dB 3 h
to dB
TxServic
antenna+ Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174 j
gain,
Attenuation
2dBi for
Effective
Rate a
due to body Noise rise due to interference dB 5.23 l=10*log10(1/(1-(k/100)))
Rx
Max. antenna
dipole
UE
Isotropic
obstruction. Total effect of noise dBm/Hz -171 m=h+j
gain infrom
power
Power the
boresight
Attenuation
Cable
the Tx and Information rate dBHz 48.06 n=db(a)
direction
through
connector
Source
antenna Effective required Eb/No dB 2.54 o
building
losses
We will between
thermal walls RX sensitivity dBm -115.40 p=l+m+n+o+correction factor
the Rx antenna
noise
study Soft Handoff Gain dB 4.5 q
and the cabinet
these
Fast fading Margin dB 2.5 r
paramete
rs in more Log normal fade margin dB 11.6 s
detail in In-building penetration loss (urban) dB 20 t
subseque Maximum path loss urban dB 123.80 pl=e+f+q-g-p-r-s-t
nt
sections
Path loss = Tx signal + all gains - losses - ( SNR + Noise)

Bit rate bit/s 64000 a

Total TX power available dBm 21 b
TX antenna gain dBi 2 c
Body loss dB 0 d
TX EIRP per traffic channel dBm 23 e=b+c-d
RX antenna gain dBi 18 f
RX cable and connector losses dB 3 g
Receiver noise figure dB 3 h
Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174 j
Noise rise due to interference dB 5.23 l=10*log10(1/(1-(k/100)))
Total effect of noise dBm/Hz -171 m=h+j
Information rate dBHz 48.06 n=db(a)
Effective required Eb/No dB 2.54 o
RX sensitivity dBm -115.40 p=l+m+n+o+correction factor
Soft Handoff Gain dB 4.5 q
Fast fading Margin dB 2.5 r
Log normal fade margin dB 11.6 s
In-building penetration loss (urban) dB 20 t
Maximum path loss urban dB 123.80 pl=e+f+q-g-p-r-s-t
Topics
Required Eb/Io
Path Loss Calculation
Required Eb/Io
Required Eb/Io
The quality of a link can be defined by the error rate; in
UMTS networks we can measure the Block Error Rate,
(BLER). We will use this as our fundamental measure of
For the up-link, it is possible to relate the BLER to the ratio
Eb/Io , where:
Eb is the received energy per bit from the wanted user,
Io is the total received power density, from both interference and
thermal noise, excluding the power of the wanted signal .
Therefore, we can use Eb/Io as an indication of link quality
Required Eb/Io depends on the channel conditions.
Power Control eliminates the near-far problem, i.e. if all
users experience the same channel, they will require the
same average Eb/Io.
SNR can be assumed to be equal to (E b/Io)X(R/W)
Required Eb/Io Dependence on speed

Eb/Io

Speed
Typical Average Eb/Io values

Voice 12.2kbps
BLER Pedestrian A Vehicular A Vehicular A Pedestrian B Vehicular B Vehicular B
3km/hr 50km/hr 120km/hr 3km/hr 50km/hr 120km/hr

0.10% 7.46 6.71 7.42 7.60 7.21 6.88

1% 6.37 5.95 6.44 6.85 6.32 5.91
3% 5.78 5.40 5.97 6.57 5.74 5.45
5% 5.53 5.17 5.76 6.28 5.46 5.22
10% 5.33 4.82 5.32 5.81 5.10 4.90

64kbps CS
BLER Pedestrian A Vehicular A Vehicular A Pedestrian B Vehicular B Vehicular B
3km/hr 50km/hr 120km/hr 3km/hr 50km/hr 120km/hr

0.10% 2.32 3.47 3.62 3.93 2.98 3.01

1% 1.71 2.70 2.85 3.28 2.2 2.38
3% 1.45 2.20 2.35 2.93 1.66 1.82
5% 0.80 1.91 2.00 2.75 1.30 1.49
10% 1.28 1.43 2.50 0.80 1.05
Typical Average Eb/Io values

144kbps PS
BLER Pedestrian A Vehicular A Vehicular A Pedestrian B Vehicular B Vehicular B
3km/hr 50km/hr 120km/hr 3km/hr 50km/hr 120km/hr

1% 1.60 2.63 2.75 3.51 2.59 3.32

3% 1.30 2.27 2.41 3.24 2.23 2.92
5% 1.85 2.07 2.25 2.92 2.05 2.72
10% 0.94 1.76 1.95 2.77 1.78 2.40

384kbps PS
BLER Pedestrian A Vehicular A Vehicular A Pedestrian B Vehicular B Vehicular B
3km/hr 50km/hr 120km/hr 3km/hr 50km/hr 120km/hr

1% 3.65 5.14 5.23 5.85 5.40 5.65

3% 3.24 4.68 4.72 5.50 4.93 5.11
5% 2.90 4.38 4.62 5.27 4.64 4.82
10% 2.90 3.50 4.37 4.88 4.13 4.39

The minimum required received signal strength to achieve the
desired Eb/Io and consequently the target performance (BLER) in
the presence of a known amount of interference.
Rise
The link quality for user i can be found as follows:

Which makes the receiver sensitivity: Rx _ sensitivity Si

SNRi
Interferen ce & noise I 0 W
Eb R I0
Where S SNRi I 0 W
i N0 W
Si : Received signal strength of user i. I 0W N0
Ri : Rate of user i.

S N 0 N R
Eb
Noise Rise
i I0 i

N 0 kT NF
N :
Same cell interference

Same Cell Interference: Number of

All users are power controlled. Activit Users
y Data
Energy Rate
(Energy/bit )X(bit/s)=Energy /s = power
per Bit

I samecell .Eb .R N 1
Noise

You ! Other
users in
the same
cell !
Other cell interference

Other Cell Interference:

You !
Users in other cells are not power controlled by your
site.
The other cell interference depends on:
- The location and density of mobiles in neighboring
sites.
Interference
- The overlap between the sites (soft handoff).

I samecell
Usually:
f
Itotal Depends on:
Site Configuration
Mix of services
Other cell interference
Configuration Interference Ratio
(Isc/total)

Isolated Cell 1

neighbors

A sector with neighbors extremely 0.45

Total Interference
Total interference to one link is calculated like this:

Chip Rate
I 0W I samecell I othercell N 0W
densities

We know that: I samecell .Eb .R N 1

1 f
and that: I othercell I samecell
f
1
Hence: I 0W .Eb .R N 1 N 0 .W
f
Pole Capacity
1
I 0W .Eb .R N 1 N 0 .W
f

W
R N0
( N 1) 1
1 E I0
b
f I0
Pole Capacity occurs when interference is much higher than noise.Constant
(K)
W
N W /R
( N pole 1) R 1 0 N pole 1
1 E I0 Eb 1
b . .
f I0 I0 f

N0 N 1 N0 1
K 1 1 K 1 0 1
N I0 I0 K I 0 K
N pole K 1 1 1
K 1 1
K K

I0 1 1
N
N0 1 1 1
K
S i N 0 N b Ri
E
I0

1 1 Eb
Si N 0 Ri
1 1 Eb R I 0
1
f I0 W
I0 1
In the link budget, it is assumed that: N
N0 1
1
So the correction factor : CF
1 Eb R
1
f I0 W
the noise rise calculation:
S i N 0 N CF R
Eb
I0 i

Path loss = Tx signal + all gains - other losses - ( SNR + Noise)

Path loss = Tx signal + all gains - other losses - ( SN0R + Noise density)

S i N 0 N CF R
Eb
I0 i

(Fast Power Control Margin)

The required Eb/Io used in the Link Budget, is the

average Eb/Io for a given channel condition.

effects. The Maximum available transmitted
power from the mobile side is used to achieve the
average required Eb/Io .

There are two power control mechanisms in the

uplink direction , inner loop power control and
outer loop power control.

-5
dB

-10

transmit power
90 km/hr Rayleigh Channel
-15

0.14 0.145 0.15 0.155 0.16 0.165 0.17

Time
seconds

20

10

-10
dB

-20

transmit power
-30 3 km/hr rayleigh channel

-40

0.05 0.1
Time 0.15 0.2 0.25
seconds
1
95%
0.9
Pedestrian A
Vehicular A The fast fade margin is the
0.8 range required above the
average transmit power to
0.7
a certain percentage of the
time.
Prob (TX power < X)

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

1.5dB
0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Normalised TX power
Handoff Gain
Soft Handoff Gain - Definition

Generally defined as:

The improvement in edge of cell path loss, due
to soft handoff.

Two components:
The reduction in slow-fading margin due to site
diversity.
The Improvement in Eb/Io due to soft handoff.
Slow Fading Margin and Handoff Gain

Calculate needed margin to achieve the

required edge of cell coverage with no
handoff - i.e. only one site.
Calculate needed margin to achieve the
required edge of cell coverage assuming
handoff - i.e. one of two possible sites.
The amount of reduction in the margin
required is called: handoff gain.
Handoff gain is purely due to site diversity.
Slow Fading Margin and Handoff Gain

When the median path loss is equal to

maximum achievable path loss in the
link budget, the probability of coverage
at the edge of cell is 50%.
A margin is required to improve the
coverage probability.
With an added power margin M, the
probability becomes:

1 1 M
Pedge erf
2 2 2

Coverage probability at the edge of
cell - the best of two receivers
to BTS1 and BTS2

With a margin M, the probability of

coverage at the point exactly in the
middle:

BTS1 BTS2 Pedge 1 Pr[min Ls1 , Ls 2 ] M

Viterbi*:
1

M - a x
2

e
2
x
Pedge 1 /2
Q dx
2 b
1 1 t
Q t erf
2 Correlation
2
2 coefficients
* Viterbi, A.J , CDMA Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication, Addison Wesley
1995
Interpretation of Soft Handoff Gain

11

Coverage Prob. Without margin (M) 0.9

0.9

Gain =3.7 dB

Coverage
Coverage
0.8
0.8

of Coverage
Coverage Prob. With margin

of
Probability of
0.7
0.7 2.5dB Margin

Probability
Probability
6.2dB Margin
6.2dB Margin

0.6

0.5
0.5

Coverage Prob. With margin

(M=2.5dB) - The best of two receivers 0.4
0.4
00 0.2
0.2 0.4
0.4 0.6
0.6 0.8
0.8 1
1 1.2
1.2 1.4
1.4 1.6
1.6 1.8
1.8 2
2

Soft Hanodff Gain is 3.7dB in this example

Edge of cell Coverage VS. fade margin
0
Soft handoff and No handoff edge of cell Performance
10

Soft handoff
Probability of signal<required at the edge of cell

No handoff

-1
10

-2
10

-3
10

-4
10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Margin
Overall cell Coverage VS. fade margin
Calculate needed margin to achieve the required
overall cell coverage with no handoff - i.e. only
one site.

Calculate needed margin to achieve the required

overall cell coverage assuming handoff - i.e. one
of two possible sites.

The amount of reduction in the margin required is

called: handoff gain.

Handoff gain is purely due to site diversity.

Overall cell Coverage VS. fade margin
1
Overall Cell Coverage Probability

0.95 Sigma=4dB
Sigma=8dB
O v erall C ell C ov erage P robability

0.9 Sigma=12dB

0.85
Soft handoff

Without handoff

0.8

0.75

0.7
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Margin (dB)
Margin (dB)
Soft Handoff Gain:
Block Selection Diversity Gain

If a mobile is in 2-way soft handoff the RNC will

have two active connections with two distinct
base stations.
The RNC will choose the better block. If the
block error rate (BLER) on the first connection is
a and the BLER on the second connection is b,
then the effective BLER is: a b (if statistically
independent events)
To operate at the desired BLER, the required
Eb/Io target for each individual leg in soft
handoff can be reduced.
A B

RNC
Example:
P(A)=5% and P(B)=20%
If A and B are statistically independent, then P(A+B)=P(A).P(B)=1%
If A and B are 100% dependent, then P(B/A)=100% and P(A+B)=5%.
If A and B are x% dependent, then P(B/A)=P(B)*(100%-x%)+ (x%*100%)
Soft Handoff Gain:
Block Selection Diversity Gain
0
10

20%
C
BLER
BLER

-1
10

B 5%

Difference in path loss

gain for
primary leg
-2 A 1%
10
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4
Eb/Io
Eb/Io
Soft Handoff Gain:
Block Selection Diversity Gain
Block Selection Diversity Gain due to soft handoff
2

1.8

1.6
Block Selection Diversity Gain
Block Selection Diversity Gain (dB)

1.4
Gain is specific to soft systems
1.2

1 It also improves the link budget

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 2.75 3
Difference in path loss (dB)
Difference in path loss (dB)
Maximum Path Loss Calculation

Bit rate bit/s 64000 a

EIRP + all the
Total TX power available dBm 21 b
Gains
TX antenna gain dBi 2 c
Body loss dB 0 d

Rx sensitivity TX EIRP per traffic channel dBm 23 e=b+c-d

+all the losses RX antenna gain dBi 18 f
RX cable and connector losses dB 3 g
Receiver noise figure dB 3 h
Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174 j
Noise rise due to interference dB 5.23 l=10*LOG10(1/(1-(k/100)))
Total effect of noise dBm/Hz -171 m=h+j
Information rate dBHz 48.06 n=dB(a)
Effective required Eb/No dB 2.54 o
RX sensitivity dBm -115.40 p=l+m+n+o+correction factor
Log normal fade margin dB 11.6 q
Soft Handoff Gain dB 4.5 r
Fast fading Margin dB 2.5 s

Conclusion