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APPLICATIONS OF

REMOTE SENSING IN
DISASTER MANAGEMENT:
EARTHQUAKES AND
LANDSLIDES
CONTENTS
DISASTER
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
IMPORTANCE OF RS&GIS IN DISASTER MANGEMENT
EARTHQUAKES
ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN EARTHQUAKES
LANDSLIDES
ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN LANDSLIDES
DISASTER

Disaster is a natural or man-made(technological) hazard


resulting in a event of substantial extent causing
significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or
drastic change to the environment.
SOME OF THE NATURAL DISASTERS ARE:

Earthquake Landslide Flood

Volcano Cyclone
DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Disaster management can be defined as the discipline and


profession of applying science, technology, planning, and
management to deal with extreme events.
The emphasis of disaster management is prevention and loss
reduction.
IMPORTANCE OF REMOTE SENSING IN
DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Disaster management is divided into following phases:


Planning
Mitigation
Preparedness
Response
Recovery
PLANNING:
RS & GIS is helpful with forward planning.
It provides the framework for planners and disaster managers to view spatial
data by way of computer based maps.

MITIGATION:
Representation of high risk areas.
Facilitates the implementation of necessary mechanism to lessen the impact.

PREPAREDNESS:
Identification of emergency areas.
Positions of related departments, agencies and human resources.
Makes easier for security and shelter providers to plan the strategies.
RESPONSE:
Provide accurate information on exact location of an emergency situation.
Time saving during the determination of trouble areas (Quick response).
Used as floor guide for evacuation routes.

RECOVERY:
Mapping level of damage.
Information related to disrupted infrastructure, no. of persons dead or injured and
impact on environment.
EARTHQUAKES

Anearthquakeis a shaking of the ground caused by the sudden breaking and


movement of large sections (tectonic plates) of the earth's rocky outermost crust.

The edges of the tectonic plates are marked by faults (or fractures).
ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN EARTHQUAKES

The earthquakes can occur in cycles of decades or centuries.


Scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have operated seismographic
stations throughout the world for more than 35 years.
For the past few years, in cooperation with the Incorporated Research Institutions
for Seismology (IRIS - a consortium of more than 90 universities), the USGS has
upgraded the system into a state-of-the-art Global Seismographic Network (GSN).
The GSN is designed for obtaining high quality data in digital form that can be
readily accessed by data users worldwide.
For some stations, the data is reported to orbiting satellites, and then to the
Internet where information can be viewed using the World Wide Web.
Remote sensing techniques can add-up to the information available through seismic
techniques.
Generally, the faults associated with earthquakes can be identified on good
resolution satellite imagery, whereas the volcanic related earthquakes are not all
that obvious.
For this purpose land use and geological maps can give vital pointers towards
potential earthquake zones.
Satellite sensors that are active in the visible and near infrared spectral band would
be useful. IRS, NOAA (www.usgs.gov), SPOT, LANDSAT and IKONOS all of them
collect the required data.
EARTHQUAKE IN BHUJ, INDIA CAPTURED
BY IKONOS ON FEBRUARY 2, 2001
(Source: http
://www.spaceimaging.com/carterra/applications/disaster/m
ozambique.htm
)
MITIGATION PREPAREDNESS RESPONSE RECOVERY SATELLITES
USED
Building stock Measuring Planning routes for Identifying sites PALSAR
assessment strain search and rescue for IKONOS 2
Hazard mapping accumulation Damage assessment rehabilitation INSAR
Evacuation planning SPOT
Deformation IRS
planning
LANDSLIDES

Alandslideis the movement of rock, debris or earth down a slope. They result
from the failure of the materials which make up the hill slope and are driven by the
force of gravity.
Landslidesare known also as landslips, slumps or slope failure.
ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN LANDLIDES

An area with a potential landslide hazard usually has some evidence of previous
occurrences.
The spatial resolution required for the recognition of most landslide features is about
10 m.
However, the recognition depends to a great extent on the ability and experience of
the interpreter and is enhanced by the availability of stereoscopic coverage, which
can be expensive to acquire.
Although large block landslides can be detected on LANDSAT MSS and TM imagery,
SPOT PAN imagery could be preferred with its 10 m resolution or IKONOS 4 m
multispectral image would still be better.
Thermal IR scanner is particularly useful during the night, due to the maximum
temperature difference between the terrain and the ground water, in locating
seepage areas that lubricate slides.
However, limitations like, low altitude required for reasonable spatial resolution, the
large number of flight lines required for the large area involved, and the geometrical
distortions inherent in the system restrict the use of thermal IR scanner.
X-band SAR can be marginally useful in a stereo mode because of its ability to
define some larger textures related to landslides.
In some cloud-prone environments SAR may be the only sensor that can provide
interpretable information.
SPOT MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES ACQUIRED BEFORE
LANDSLIDE ON AUGUST 19, 2000
SPOT multispectral image acquired after a landslide on 29 November 2000
Perspective view of the area -A merged SPOT pan-multispectral image
is
draped over a DEM
(source: http://www.zrc-sazu.si/pic/pub/log/log.htm)
ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN LANDSLIDES

MITIGATION PREPAREDNES RESPONSE RECOVERY SATELLITE


S S
USED
Risk modelling Monitoring Damage assessment Mapping affected PALSAR
Hazard rainfall and Spatial planning areas IKONOS 2
mapping slope stability Suggesting INSAR
Digital management practices SPOT
elevation IRS
models
THANK YOU