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Troubleshooting system

hardware
Unit objectives:
Troubleshoot core system elements
Troubleshoot storage devices
Troubleshoot laptop computers

Topic A
 Topic A: Troubleshooting core system
elements
 Topic B: Troubleshooting storage
devices
 Topic C: Troubleshooting laptops

Specialized tools
 Multimeter
 Power supply tester
 Memory tester
 Loopback plug
 POST card

Electrical measurements
 Measure electrical values with a
multimeter
 Multimeters can be digital or analog
 Use to measure
– Resistance
– Voltage
– Current
– Continuity

Read the resistance from the meter’s display . Touch the black and red probes to either side of the circuit to be measured 6. Touch the two leads of the multimeter together 5.Measuring resistance 1. You might need to disconnect the device from its circuit 3. Turn off the device you’re measuring and disconnect it from its power source 2. Set the multimeter to read resistance 4.

Verify the power supply is on 2.Measuring voltage 1. Set your multimeter to read either DC or AC voltage 3. Read the voltage from the meter’s display You must exercise care when taking voltage readings as the computer is powered up . Touch the black probe to the ground. and touch the red probe to the spot where you want to measure the voltage 4.

Measuring current  Break the circuit and insert the meter in the break  Ammeter doesn’t require break  Clamp ammeters are often used to measure current flow in 110 V and higher circuits .

if available .Measuring continuity  Set your multimeter to display resistance (ohms) and look for circuits with zero resistance  Also can use continuity mode.

Power supply tester  Alternative to manual test with multimeter  Takes approximately 30 minutes  Follow instructions for your specific tester  Advantages: – Less susceptible to human error – Results are more conclusive – Safer to perform .

An AC signal .

Power problems  Blackout — Total loss of power  Brownout — Brief decrease in voltage level  Noise — Disruption of smoothly varying AC signal  Spike — Very brief increase in voltage  Surge — Brief increase in voltage (longer than spike) .

The Power_Good signal  Signals CPU that power is stable and sufficient  +5 V over specific wire  Must arrive at correct time .

Loopback plug  Specific to port type  Plugs into port to determine functionality .

POST card  Plugs into expansion slot  Reads progress of boot procedure  Displays status with numeric codes  Included in some motherboards .

CMOS battery .

Record custom CMOS setting values 2. discharge the CMOS memory using motherboard jumpers 6. If necessary. Reconnect any cables and power cord 10. remove cables to allow battery access 4. Reboot. Enter correct date and time 11. Gently slide the battery out of its compartment 5.Replacing the CMOS battery 1. Close the PCs chassis 9. Reconnect any cables you disconnected to gain access to the battery 8. If necessary. open your computer’s chassis 3. Insert the new battery into the holder 7. Power down. Access BIOS to reset custom values .

BIOS update failures  Don’t update BIOS unless necessary  Never turn off the computer during a BIOS update  Use correct flash utility  Follows instructions exactly  Back up old BIOS .

Recovering from a failed update  Restore the BIOS backup  Boot from a floppy disk containing the correct BIOS and flashing utility  Set the Flash recovery jumper switch on the motherboard to reset BIOS to default  Replace the BIOS chip .

Memory testing  Use testing utility – Memtest86 — Free. open source – Microsoft Windows Memory Diagnostic — Free. unsupported  Boot from floppy or CD .

Boot failure problems  Insufficient power connectors  Computer fails to boot. but fans start  Computer fails to boot when powered on. eight short beeps  Three long beeps  One long and three short beeps  Corrupted display at boot . but boots after Ctrl+Alt+Del  No video. fans don’t start  Computer fails to boot.

Boot errors  POST code 162  POST code 164  201 BIOS error  Error message “Non-system disk or disk error”  Error message “Display type mismatch” Continued .

Boot errors. continued  Wrong amount of memory reported by BIOS  Error message “CMOS checksum failure”  Error message “MBR has been changed or modified”  Devices misidentified  Hard drive inaccessible Continued .

Boot errors. continued  System won’t boot from hard drive  System boots from wrong device  Date and time incorrect or reset after the computer is turned off .

corrupted data. strange application behavior  Parity error message .Problems during operation  Computer makes loud noises during boot  Computer intermittently stops working or reboots  Windows Page Fault or Exception errors  Random crashes.

Topic B  Topic A: Troubleshooting core system elements  Topic B: Troubleshooting storage devices  Topic C: Troubleshooting laptops .

Software tools  CHKDSK  DEFRAG  FDISK or DISKPART  FORMAT  BOOTREC  FIXBOOT and FIXMBR  Antivirus software  Backup and recovery software .

Troubleshooting hard and floppy drives  Can’t access drive at all  Can’t boot from hard drive  Space on drive doesn’t match advertised space  Drive makes loud clicking sound  File corruption  System boots from hard drive on warm restart but not cold boot Continued .

Troubleshooting hard and floppy drives. continued  Drive letter incorrect  Can’t use full space of large drive  Drive not detected during boot process  Operating system not found  Blue screen crashes or unexpected reboots  Slow performance .

Troubleshooting RAID arrays  RAID not found during Windows Install  RAID stops working .

Troubleshooting CD drives  No audio plays from CD  CD drive not found  Disc can’t be read  Buffer underrun  Write process fails repeatedly after starting  File corruption on SCSI drive  Burned CD-RW can’t be read on other computers .

Troubleshooting DVD and Blu-ray drives  Disc can’t be played when two displays are in use  UDF-formatted discs can’t be read  Can’t play movie .

Troubleshooting external drives  Device not recognized .

Topic C  Topic A: Troubleshooting core system elements  Topic B: Troubleshooting storage devices  Topic C: Troubleshooting laptops .

Notebook repair procedures  Use appropriate hand tools  Refer to manufacturer’s documentation to find panels or slots  Document and label screw locations  Organize parts  Keep software tools on flash drive or external USB optical drive .

Notebook computer problems  Keyboards  Pointing devices  Stylus  Peripherals  Overheating  Components not recognized  Display  Wireless antenna  Wireless ports .

Power issues  Rechargeable batteries wear out – Verify replacement battery is compatible  Battery indicator – Use software to configure power options .

Power-related measurements  Voltage  Amperage  Polarity  Volts  Amps = Watts .

Replacing the battery  Determining necessity  Using proper procedure .

Troubleshooting power problems  Check the notebook’s power status lights  Use a multimeter  Swap the AC adapter  Replace the battery .

Unit summary  Resolved problems with core system elements  Resolved problems with storage devices  Resolved problems with laptop computers .