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A

Presentation
on
Summer Training From

Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant


Submitted To Submitted By
Electrical Department Saurabh Agrawal
K10904
B. Tech, Electrical 7th Sem.
NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

The power plant which uses nuclear energy as A source to convert the
atomic energy into mechanical energy and hence converting it to
electrical energy is called as A nuclear power plant.
These power plants are classified on the following basis:-
Type of reactor used
Amount of power generated.
WHAT CONTROLS NUCLEAR POWER
PLANTS IN INDIA ?
SHORT INTRO OF NPCIL

Head quarter is located in mumbai


Founded in sept. 1987
Controls 5780 MW of energy generated in our country
Planning to generate additional 16500 MW of energy
KEY-PERSON OF NPCIL

Mr. K.C. Purohit


Chairman & Managing Director Of NPCIL
FIRST NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

Electricity was generated for the first time ever by a nuclear reactor
on december 20, 1951 at the EBR-I experimental station near arco,
idaho in the united states.
On june 27, 1954, the world's first nuclear power plant to generate
electricity for a power grid started operations at obninsk, ussr.
The world's first commercial scale power station, calder hall in
England opened in october 17, 1956.
FIRST NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDIA
Tarapur atomic power station (T.A.P.S.) Was the first nuclear power
plant in india. The construction of the plant was started in 1962 and
the plant went operational in 1969.
The 320 mw tarapur nuclear power station housed two 160 mw
boiling water reactors (bwrs), the first in asia.
The tarapur plant was originally constructed by the american
companies bechtel and ge, under a 1963 123 agreement between
india, the united states, and the iaea.
NUCLEAR FUEL
Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear
energy. The most common type of nuclear fuel is fissile elements
that can be made to undergo nuclear fission chain reactions in a
nuclear reactor .

The most common nuclear fuels are 235U and 239pu. Not all
nuclear fuels are used in fission chain reactions.
NUCLEAR FISSION

When a neutron strikes an atom of uranium, the uranium splits into


two lighter atoms and releases heat simultaneously.

Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction which can


release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and
as kinetic energy of the fragments.
NUCLEAR (ATOMIC) POWER PLANT

WORKING PRINCIPLE
A nuclear power plant works in a similar way as a thermal power
plant. The difference between the two is in the fuel they use to
heat the water in the boiler(steam generator).
Inside a nuclear power station, energy is released by nuclear
fission in the core of the reactor.
1 kg of uranium u235 can produce as much energy as the burning
of 4500 tonnes of high grade variety of coal or 2000 tonnes of oil.
CHAIN REACTION
NUCLEAR FISSION
Heavy nuclei split into two smaller parts in order to become more stable

proton Kr-92 nucleus


neutron

energy

U-235 nucleus

Ba-141 nucleus
NUCLEAR FISSION
It is a process of splitting up of nucleus of fissionable
material like uranium into two or more fragments
with release of enormous amount of energy.
The nucleus of u235 is bombarded with high energy
neutrons

U235+0n1 ba 141+kr92+2.50n1+200
mev energy.

The neutrons produced are very fast and can be


made to fission other nuclei of u235, thus setting up a
chain reaction.
Out of 2.5 neutrons released one neutron is used to
sustain the chain reaction.
UNCONTROLLED NUCLEAR REACTION
The chain reaction is not the rate of fission
slowed down increases rapidly

Nuclear bomb a huge amount of


energy is released
very quickly
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
WITH PWR steam (high pressure) electric
power
control rods
generator
reactor
fuel core turbine steam (low
rods water pressure)
(hot)
steam coolant in
generator steam condenser
pump

water coolant out


(cool)
reactor Water pump
pressure Water
vessel (high pressure) (low pressure)

primary loop secondary loop


steam (high pressure) electric
power
control rods

fuel rods They contain the nuclear fuel:


turbine
water
uranium (U-235) steam (low
pressure)
(hot) They are surrounded by a
moderator
steam (water or graphite)
coolant into
generator steam condenser
slow down the neutrons released.
water coolant out
(cool) pump
reactor
pressure water (low
vessel water (high pressure)
pressure)
primary loop secondary loop
control rods steam (high pressure) electric
They control the rate of reaction
by
power
moving in and out of the reactor.
Move in: rate of reaction
fuel turbine steam (low
rods water reaction
Move out: rate ofpressure)
(hot)
All are moved in: the reactor is
steam coolant in
shut down
generator steam condenser
They are made of boron or
water cadmium that can absorb neutrons.
coolant out
(cool) pump
reactor
pressure water (low
vessel water (high pressure)
pressure)
primary loop secondary loop
steam (high pressure) electric
power
control rods
generator
fuel turbine steam (low
rods water pressure)
(hot)
The steam
steam drives a turbine,
coolantwhich
in
turnsgenerator steam condenser
the generator.
Electricity is produced by the
water coolant out
(cool) generator.
pump
reactor
pressure water (low
vessel water (high pressure)
pressure)
primary loop secondary loop
steam (high pressure) electric
power
control rods

fuel turbine steam (low


rods water pressure)
(hot)
steam coolant in
generator steam condenser

water coolant out


(cool) pump
reactor
pressure water (low
vessel water (high pressure)
pressure)
Two separate water systems are used to avoid
radioactive
primary loop substances to reach
secondary loop the turbine.
steam (high pressure) electric
The energy power
control rods
released in
fuel turbine
fissions heats up
steam (low
rods
water the water around
pressure)
(hot) the reactor.
steam The water coolant
ininthe
generator steam condenser
secondary loop
is boiled to
water coolant out
(cool) pump steam.
reactor
pressure water (low
vessel water (high pressure)
pressure)
primary loop secondary loop
N.P.PS IN INDIA

i. TARAPUR ATOMIC POWER STATION (TAPS)


ii. RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER STATION (RAPS)
iii. MADRAS ATOMIC POWER STATION (MAPS)
iv. KAIGA GENERATING STATION (KGS)
v. NARORA ATOMIC POWER STATION (NAPS)
vi. KAKRAPAR ATOMIC POWER STATION (KAPS)
vii. KUDANKULAM ATOMIC POWER PROJECT (KAPP)
Operating Nuclear Power Plants in
India

TARAPUR-1&2 RAJASTHAN-1to 6 MADRAS-1&2

NARORA-1&2 KAKRAPARA-1&2 KAIGA-1 to 4


TARAPUR 3&4

Total Capacity 4780 MWe


REACTORS UNDER CONSTRUCTION
KK 1&2 (2x1000 MWe) RAPP-7&8 (2x700
PFBR MWe)
(500 MWe)

KAPP-3&4 (2x700 MWe)

Total Capacity under


construction 4800 MWe
PROPOSED N.P.P
NUCLEAR REACTOR
UNITS
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
UNDER CONSTRUCTION REACTOR UNITS
CONTROL RODS
Control rods made of a material that absorbs neutrons are
inserted into the bundle using a mechanism that can rise or
lower the control rods.

The control rods essentially contain neutron absorbers like,


boron, cadmium or indium.
STEAM GENERATOR
Steam generators are heat exchangers used to convert
water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor
core.

Either ordinary water or heavy water is used as the


coolant.
STEAM TURBINE

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts


thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it
into useful mechanical.

various high-performance alloys and super alloys have


been used for steam generator tubing.
COOLANT PUMP

The coolant pump pressurizes the coolant to pressures of


the order of 155bar.

The pressure of the coolant loop is maintained almost


constant with the help of the pump and a pressuriser unit.
FEED PUMP

Steam coming out of the turbine, flows through the condenser


for condensation and recirculated for the next cycle of
operation.

The feed pump circulates the condensed water in the working


fluid loop.
CONDENSER

Condenser is a device or unit which is used to condense vapor into liquid.

The objective of the condenser are to reduce the turbine exhaust pressure to
increase the efficiency and to recover high quality feed water in the form of
condensate & feed back it to the steam generator without any further treatment.
COOLING TOWER

Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process


waste heat to the atmosphere.

Water circulating through the condenser is taken to the cooling


tower for cooling and reuse
ADVANTAGES
Nuclear power generation does emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide
(CO). The emissions of green house gases and therefore the contribution of
nuclear power plants to global warming is therefore relatively little.

This technology is readily available, it does not have to be developed first.

It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant

A nuclear power plant uses much less fuel than a fossil-fuel plant. 1 metric tone
of uranium fuel = 3 million metric tones of coal = 12 million barrels of oil.
DISADVANTAGES
The problem of radioactive waste is still an unsolved one.

During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive waste is produced,


which in turn can be used for the production of nuclear weapons.

High risks: it is technically impossible to build a plant with 100% security.

The energy source for nuclear energy is uranium. Uranium is a scarce resource,
its supply is estimated to last only for the next 30 to 60 years depending on the
actual demand.
PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR(PWR)
Advantages: Disadvantages:
Compactness Strong pressure vessel is
Isolation of radio active required
system from main steam Formation of low temp.
system Steam
Cheap light water used as High losses from heat
both moderator and coolant exchanger
FUKUSHIMA EVENT AND ITS
PROGRESSION
FUKUSHIMA EVENT
On 11th march 2011, earthquake of magnitude 9.0 struck near fukushima,
japan. It was followed by tsunami of ~15 meter high waves after an hour
of earthquake.
Magnitude of earthquake and tsunami wave height were more than
considered in the design.
There were total 13 npps located in the affected zone, out of which 10
were operating and 3 were under maintenance outage.
All 10 operating plants at the affected area automatically shutdown on
sensing the earthquake.
Out of 13 npps in the affected zone, 4 npps at fukushima daiichi got
affected. Remaining 9 plants were safe.
All the 6 plants located in fukushima daiichi were of bwr type.
AERIAL VIEW OF FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NPPS 1-4
PHYSICAL CAUSES OF FUKUSHIMA EVENT
In the accident of fukushima daiichi npps, huge earth quake of magnitude 9
followed by tsunami of height 15m, caused serious situation common to
units 1-3 such as
1. Loss of external power supply from grid due to earth quake.
2. Emergency power sources like dg, batteries continued for around 1 hr, and
failed subsequently due to tsunami.
3. Loss of core cooling (decay heat removal function) due to unavailability of
all sources of power supply.
4. Loss of reactor decay heat removal resulted in fuel over heating- metal
water reaction - hydrogen generation & explosion inside the outer building.
FUKUSHIMA EVENT
As per initial analysis for unit 4, the scenario was concluded
as follows:
The unit was under refueling shut down.
The unavailability of motive power resulted in loss of fuel
pool cooling and rise in pool water temperature.
Exposure of spent fuel to air resulted in metal water reaction
which further heated up the fuel.
Hydrogen generated during the process formed an explosive
mixture and resulted in explosion, damaging the roof of the
reactor building in which spent fuel pool is located.

Typical BWR Spent Fuel Pool


Pictorial View of RAPS 1 6 from lake side

All RAPS Plants (RAPS 1-8) are at higher elevation w.r.t normal lake
level
NUCLEAR WASTE

They are highly radioactive


Many of them have very long half-lives.

Radioactive waste must


be stored carefully.
NPCIL WORKING TOWARDS GREEN FUTURE

Thank You