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The Unified Field

Theories of
Balsant Shivanand Tiwari
(PHY399A Student)

Physics (History &

 Why do we need a single
unified field theory?
 History: From Maxwell to

 Einstein-Schrodinger Theory

 Other attempts

 current status

 Conclusion

at all scales. an economic. simple theory that works at all energies.Why Do we need a single theory? “Everyone’s goal is a theory of everything.” . for all time.

 varied forces merge into one force at a high enough energy  The early phases of the universe: only one force is thought to have been active. Why Do we need a single theory?  A single theory is more beautiful than many theories  All the laws should be part of a single pattern. .

Image reference: .

he kept his chin up.htm .  Einstein was convinced such a basic harmony and simplicity existed in went ahead along his own & http://www. despite criticism he spent much of the second half of his life pursuing the development of the unified field References : http://www. History: From Maxwell to  Einstein First successful classical unified field theory: Maxwell unified (Electric + Magnetic) fields as one Electromagnetic in his 1864 famous paper.azquotes.  After Einstein finished his first article on the unified field theory in 1922.

com/einstein.htm .  He still prepared to keep on his mathematical calculation of unified field theory on his sick bed until the day before his death. References : image-a-18_1448454270248. he was very lone in his old age.jpg & More about Einstein  Because Einstein was apart from the mainstream of physical research .quantum field theory.dailymail. but he was fearless.

Einstein-Schrodinger Theory Gravitation + Electromagnetism : common metr (symmetric part) (anti-symmetric part) tensor M Q L moment B-moment V(gravitational) V(electrical) Both have stress energy tensor g E Gravito-magnetic Magnetic-field field .

Reference: https://en. but no real physical unification of electromagnetism and . Non-linear field effects set in . the theory achieved an approximate mathematical unification. Coupling takes place between the two fields Thus. Drawbacks of Einstein- Schrodinger unification  Low field strength : correctly describe  But at Higher field strength : The analogy breaks down because .wikipedia.

org/wiki/Unified_field_theory . Other Attempts  Gauge Theories (around 1920)  Electro-weak theory(around 1960)  Higgs Mechanism and Standard Model  Grand Unified theories  Georgi–Glashow model  Kaluza–Klein theory  Reference: https://en.wikipedia.

wikipedia. What’s meant by a gauge theory?  A theory described by a Lagrangian having local symmetry properties (Invariant under local transformations)  Associated with each gauge symmetry is a conserved quantity and a gauge field [The symmetry is an internal symmetry in most gauge theories]  Example: Electromagnetism  Reference: .

trouble: Schroedinger equation [physics] depends on local phase .

covariant derivative the x-component of the “gauge field” A Maxwell’s electromagnetic field appears due to the gauge invariance principle .


Three distinct gauge theories Electroweak Color gauge General gauge theory relativity theory gauge theory ? .

Electroweak theory  SU(3) * U(1) symmetry group that breaks down at energies lower than (80 GeV) to electromagnetic and weak forces.  Symmetry breaking is provided through the (persumed) Higgs field  Reference: .wikipedia.

Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking  The laws of physics are symmetric but the state of the system is not . not broken.]  Classical Example: Equations of motion are not symmetric in horizontal and vertical directions by the background gravitational filed . [ Symmetry is hidden.

 In Electroweak theory: Mw.Mz >>0 Massive gauge quanta are possible when gauge symmetry is broken! . Consequences of SSB  Iso-spin symmetry breaking in the masses between members of the same iso-spin multiplet.

 The photons become massive What mechanism causes the phase alignment in the SU(2)xU(1) internal space??? . Superconducting analogy  The alignment of the phases creates an ordered rigid structures giving rise to rejection of the electro-magnetic field (Meissner effect).

while those that interact weakly are light.  Reference : https://en.wikipedia.  Particles acquire momentum (mass) by interacting with this field.generates the particle's .]  Particles that interact strongly with the Higgs field are heavy.  [The distortion .the clustering of the field around the particle . Higgs Field and symmetry breaking  Space is supposed to be filled by a hypothetical background field permuting all the space.

What’s missing in the standard model?  Why four forces?  Charge is quantized while mass is not!  Why is the electron’s charge equal to the proton’s charge?  What about gravity?  Electroweak is not unified with the strong force !!  Why so many constants ?  Where is the Higg’s Boson? . . SU(3) as subgroups  A possible candidate: SU(5)  Reference: https://en. Grand Unified theory (GUT)  An intermediate step towards a single unified theory  Combines Electroweak with strong force  Six leptons related to six quarks  Its Lagrangian should be symmetric under a symmetry group that contains SU(2) * U(1).

g proton decay)  the first Grand Unified Theory. SU(5) – Georgi-Glashow Model  Incorporates the known fermions into multiplets (leptons and quarks).Y bosons. Reference: https://en.  Baryon number not conserved (e.  Quark and leptons can transform to each other through X.wikipedia. which would have observable effects for energies much above 100 .

org/wiki/Kaluza%E2%80%93Klein_theory .wikipedia.  Introduced 5-D metric tensor . which can be decomposed into two parts Reference : https://en. Kaluza-Klein theory  Added one extra spatial dimension to our conventional space-time.


Loop Quantum Gravity. -------------------------------------------------------------------- Einstein did manage to develop a . Conclusion current Status : Combine General relativity with Quantum Field Theory Quantum Gravity . String theory and M- theory.

Thank You! .