1 views

Uploaded by kumar singh

Unified theories of Physics by Balsant

save

You are on page 1of 27

Theories of

Balsant Shivanand Tiwari

(PHY399A Student)

Physics (History &

** Why do we need a single
**

unified field theory?

History: From Maxwell to

Einstein

Einstein-Schrodinger Theory

Other attempts

current status

Conclusion

at all scales. an economic. simple theory that works at all energies.Why Do we need a single theory? “Everyone’s goal is a theory of everything.” . for all time.

varied forces merge into one force at a high enough energy The early phases of the universe: only one force is thought to have been active. Why Do we need a single theory? A single theory is more beautiful than many theories All the laws should be part of a single pattern. .

Image reference: http://atlasexperiment.org/etours_physics/etours_physics13.html .

he kept his chin up.htm . Einstein was convinced such a basic harmony and simplicity existed in nature.com/einstein. went ahead along his own road.com/quote/1147885 & http://www. despite criticism he spent much of the second half of his life pursuing the development of the unified field theory.space-mixing-theory. References : http://www. History: From Maxwell to Einstein First successful classical unified field theory: Maxwell unified (Electric + Magnetic) fields as one Electromagnetic in his 1864 famous paper.azquotes. After Einstein finished his first article on the unified field theory in 1922.

com/einstein.htm . He still prepared to keep on his mathematical calculation of unified field theory on his sick bed until the day before his death. References : http://i.space-mixing-theory.uk/i/pix/2015/11/25/12/0E19A79800000514-3333250- image-a-18_1448454270248. he was very lone in his old age.jpg & http://www.co. More about Einstein Because Einstein was apart from the mainstream of physical research .quantum field theory.dailymail. but he was fearless.

Einstein-Schrodinger Theory Gravitation + Electromagnetism : common metr (symmetric part) (anti-symmetric part) tensor M Q L moment B-moment V(gravitational) V(electrical) Both have stress energy tensor g E Gravito-magnetic Magnetic-field field .

Reference: https://en. but no real physical unification of electromagnetism and gravity.org/wiki/Unified_field_theory . Non-linear field effects set in . the theory achieved an approximate mathematical unification. Coupling takes place between the two fields Thus. Drawbacks of Einstein- Schrodinger unification Low field strength : correctly describe But at Higher field strength : The analogy breaks down because .wikipedia.

org/wiki/Unified_field_theory . Other Attempts Gauge Theories (around 1920) Electro-weak theory(around 1960) Higgs Mechanism and Standard Model Grand Unified theories Georgi–Glashow model Kaluza–Klein theory Reference: https://en.wikipedia.

wikipedia. What’s meant by a gauge theory? A theory described by a Lagrangian having local symmetry properties (Invariant under local transformations) Associated with each gauge symmetry is a conserved quantity and a gauge field [The symmetry is an internal symmetry in most gauge theories] Example: Electromagnetism Reference: https://en.org/wiki/Unified_field_theory .

trouble: Schroedinger equation [physics] depends on local phase .

covariant derivative the x-component of the “gauge field” A Maxwell’s electromagnetic field appears due to the gauge invariance principle .

.

Three distinct gauge theories Electroweak Color gauge General gauge theory relativity theory gauge theory ? .

Electroweak theory SU(3) * U(1) symmetry group that breaks down at energies lower than (80 GeV) to electromagnetic and weak forces. Symmetry breaking is provided through the (persumed) Higgs field Reference: https://en.org/wiki/Unified_field_theory .wikipedia.

Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking The laws of physics are symmetric but the state of the system is not . not broken.] Classical Example: Equations of motion are not symmetric in horizontal and vertical directions by the background gravitational filed . [ Symmetry is hidden.

In Electroweak theory: Mw.Mz >>0 Massive gauge quanta are possible when gauge symmetry is broken! . Consequences of SSB Iso-spin symmetry breaking in the masses between members of the same iso-spin multiplet.

The photons become massive What mechanism causes the phase alignment in the SU(2)xU(1) internal space??? . Superconducting analogy The alignment of the phases creates an ordered rigid structures giving rise to rejection of the electro-magnetic field (Meissner effect).

while those that interact weakly are light. Reference : https://en.wikipedia. Particles acquire momentum (mass) by interacting with this field.generates the particle's mass.org/wiki/Higgs_mechanism .] Particles that interact strongly with the Higgs field are heavy. [The distortion .the clustering of the field around the particle . Higgs Field and symmetry breaking Space is supposed to be filled by a hypothetical background field permuting all the space.

What’s missing in the standard model? Why four forces? Charge is quantized while mass is not! Why is the electron’s charge equal to the proton’s charge? What about gravity? Electroweak is not unified with the strong force !! Why so many constants ? Where is the Higg’s Boson? .

wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_field_theory . SU(3) as subgroups A possible candidate: SU(5) Reference: https://en. Grand Unified theory (GUT) An intermediate step towards a single unified theory Combines Electroweak with strong force Six leptons related to six quarks Its Lagrangian should be symmetric under a symmetry group that contains SU(2) * U(1).

g proton decay) the first Grand Unified Theory. SU(5) – Georgi-Glashow Model Incorporates the known fermions into multiplets (leptons and quarks).Y bosons. Reference: https://en. Baryon number not conserved (e. Quark and leptons can transform to each other through X.wikipedia. which would have observable effects for energies much above 100 GeV.org/wiki/Unified_field_theory .

org/wiki/Kaluza%E2%80%93Klein_theory .wikipedia. Introduced 5-D metric tensor . which can be decomposed into two parts Reference : https://en. Kaluza-Klein theory Added one extra spatial dimension to our conventional space-time.

.

Loop Quantum Gravity. -------------------------------------------------------------------- Einstein did manage to develop a . Conclusion current Status : Combine General relativity with Quantum Field Theory Quantum Gravity . String theory and M- theory.

Thank You! .

- TOE - Fran de AquinoUploaded byIvan Rodrigues de Moraes
- Nassim Haramein - RationalWikiUploaded byWilhelm Richard Wagner
- JPA 2007Uploaded byGabriel Menezes
- 256323Uploaded byKroha77
- A matrix CFT at multiple large chargesUploaded byFábio Duarte
- 1208Uploaded byBernardo Herrera Ospitia
- albert einsten.pdfUploaded byadenomarc
- A Spin-Curvature Theory of Quantum GravoelectrodynamicsUploaded byindranu_suhendro
- QUANTUM FIELD THEORY BASICSUploaded bycaspross
- Woodward - Are the Past and the Future Really Out There.pdfUploaded byplgomes
- AfrJP Vol5 2012 p141-168Uploaded byDavid Berge
- 0602022Uploaded byJoseph Zizys
- Chapter 1 EnUploaded bypipul36
- 9706006Uploaded bygianluca perniciano
- Theoretical Aspects of Massive GravityUploaded byŞahin Kürekci
- Electron Take Three bUploaded byAbha Srivastava
- Nucl.Phys.B v.712Uploaded bybuddy72
- 63464822 Electromagnetic Theory Lecture NotesUploaded bySai Er Saravanan
- F.cooper,Etc. Physics ReportsUploaded byfelzurc
- white_and_woodson.pdfUploaded byAnonymous ivCODLhn5
- Antimatter(Theory) [PDF Search Engine]Uploaded byBrian Precious
- 5_slidesUploaded byKapilGarg
- 1 for everUploaded bySilokshan Balasingam
- New Gauge MaxwellUploaded byarbab64
- The Primordial Density Perturbation - David H. Lyth and Andrew R. LiddleUploaded byDarwin de la Cruz
- Mathematical curls and toroidal coilsUploaded byrp30
- Uploaded byluisdaniel
- Physics BookletUploaded byMayank Kashyap
- Our Conscious Mind Could Be an Electromagnetic FieldUploaded byJan Huszar

- Registration-Process.pdfUploaded bykumar singh
- INSPIRE Application FormUploaded bykumar singh
- Gravitational WavesUploaded bykumar singh
- Mid Semester 2017181Uploaded bykumar singh
- Electro Class12Uploaded bykumar singh
- Course Schedule Pr 201718 2Uploaded bykumar singh
- HW#4 _Tiwari Balsant Shivanand_PHY399A.pdfUploaded bykumar singh
- presentation_physicsUploaded bykumar singh
- Major Task 2Uploaded bykumar singh
- Course Schedule Pr 201718 1Uploaded bykumar singh
- ElectrostaticsUploaded bykumar singh
- HW#4 _Tiwari Balsant ShivanandUploaded bykumar singh