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Source, message and channel are controllable factors.

Right spokesperson deliver compelling message.
Dependent V/S Independent variables.
Evaluation of matrix
1. Receiver/comprehension: Can the receiver
comprehend the ad?
.Knowledge about market.
.Educated v/s uneducated audience.

2. channel/presentation: which media will increase

.Which media has the highest reach?
3. Message/yielding: What type of message will create
favorable attitudes or feelings?
Create agreeable messages lead to positive feelings
toward product or service.
Humorous message.
Music ads emotion
Sexual appeal
Compare brands to competitors.
Source factors

source to mean the person involved in

communicating a marketing message, either
directly or indirectly.
A direct source is a spokesperson who delivers a
message and/or demonstrates a product or service.
An indirect source, say, a model, doesnt actually
deliver a message but draws attention to and/or
enhances the appearance of the ad.
Some companies use neither direct nor indirect source...
Companies recognize that source affects sales and
advertising message...
Recruitment of salesperson characteristics of person.
Companies spent huge in recruitment, selection and
training process...
3 categories of source attributes (Herbert Kelman):
a. Credibility
b. Attractiveness
c. Power.
Source credibility

Source have relevant knowledge, skill and experience.

2 dimensions
Applying expertise
Sales personnel are trained.
Recruitment of technical persons.
Applying trustworthiness
Advertisers use techniques to increase perception that
their source is trustworthy.
Hidden cameras for consumers...
Over-heard conversation technique..
Using publicity...
Using corporate leaders as Spokespeople

Using company president or CEO as spokesperson in

Increase sales and turn leaders into celebrities.....
Example: Dell computer Michael Dell.
Charles Schwab
Limitations of credible source

High credible source V/s low credible source

Sleeper effect
Persuasiveness of message increases with time.
Studies have failed to show sleeper effect.
Source attractiveness

3 factors: similarity, familiarity, likability.

Similarity is a supposed resemblance between the
source and the receiver of the message.
familiarity refers to knowledge of the source through
Likability is an affection for the source as a result of
physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits.
Process of identification.
Applying likability: Using celebrities.
Stopping power
Effect of celebrities???
Overshadowing the product
Celebrities are being paid.
Limiting number of endorsements.
Not endorsing similar products.
Risk to advertiser
Losing brand equity
E.g Pepsi broke ties with Mike Tyson, after his wife
accused him of beating her;
- with singer Michael Jackson, after he was
accused of having sex with a 12-yearold boy.
Basketballstar Dennis Rodman many companies
terminated contract (Pizza Hut).
Understanding the meaning of celebrity endorsers.
Product, target market ----- celebrity
Demographic factors of celebrity.
Source power
Power to administer punishments to receiver..
Message structure

Order of presentation
Most important message to be placed at the beginning,
middle or end...
Message sidedness
One-sided message.
Two-sided message.
Type of two-sided message.......
Presents both sides of message and refutes the negative
Verbal versus visual messages
Message appeals

Comparative advertising
Practice of naming directly or indirectly competitors in an
Useful for new brands....
Brands with small market share.......
Fear appeals

Fear is an emotional response to a threat that

expresses, or at least implies, some sort of
Example ???
How fear operates.
Advertiser should consider how fear operate, level to use,
how target audience respond.
Theory suggest a curvilinear relationship between level of
fear and message acceptance or persuasion.
Study by Anand-Leller and Block
Examined condition under which low and high fear level
operates e.g smoking
Protection motivation model:
1. The information available regarding the severity of
the perceived threat,
2. The perceived probability that the threat will occur,
3. The perceived ability of a coping behavior to
remove the threat,
4. The individuals perceived ability to carry out the
coping behavior.
Humor appeals

Used by many companies.

Used in a variety of media TV, Radio.. Print media.
Attract and retain attention.
Create a positive mood.
Prevent counterargue against the message.
Difficult to produce.
More effective with low involvement.