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GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT OFFICE, HHSG, PA

Gender And Development


Awareness

CPT MARY CECILLE S SOMBONG (OS) PA


Ms Joy Difuntorum-Ramirez
Workshop 1: Babae yan! lalaki
yan!
Nanganganak Matalino
Malakas Leader
Malinis sa katawan Good provider
Maalaga
Matapang
Nagger
Masipag
SEQUENCE OF PRESENTATION

GAD Concept

Manifestations & Gender Biases

Four Process in a Childs Learning of Gender Roles and


Identity

GAD Perspectives
Concept of gender and
development
SEX and gender
What is sex?

is a natural distinguishing variable based


on biological characteristics of being a
woman or a man.

IT CANNOT BE CHANGED!
Women: MEN:

VAGINA PENIS
EGG CELL SPERM CELL
ESTROGEN TESTOSTERONE
WHAT IS GENDER?

refers to the socially differentiated roles,


characteristics and expectations attributed
by culture to women and men.

CAN BE CHANGED!
Men & women:
Household chores;
Child rearing;
Get a job;
Can drive a car;
Can play dress-up;
Can climb etc.
SEX AND GENDER ROLE
Sex role is a function which a
male or female assumes
because of the basic
physiological or anatomical
Ex.
differences between
Male - Fatherhood
the
sexes.Female Motherhood
Gender role refers to
societys evaluation of
behavior as masculine or
feminine.
Difference between sex
and gender role
GENDER ROLES SEX ROLES
May differ from society Same in all societies: they
to society are universal
Can change with
Never change with history
history
Can be performed by Can be performed by only
both sexes one of the sexes
They are socially, They are biologically
culturally determined determined
What is development?
is a sustained capacity to achieve a better
life for all regardless of:
Sex
Age
Religion
Ethnicity
Class
Development must
benefit both women
and Men
Gender issues
What is gender issues?

pertain to beliefs, ideas, attitudes, behavior,


systems and other factors that block peoples
capacity to do and capacity to be.

affects everybody
Gender issues:
Economic Marginalization
Political Subordination
Gender Stereotyping
Multiple Burden
Violence Aginst Women
Economic Marginalization

Womens work, especially thier


reproductive functions of child bearing
and family care and housework, are not
considered as directly contributing to
economic development;

Last to be hired; First to be fired


Political Subordination

positions of power and leadership in the


home, community, workplact and in
society at large are generally occupied by
men;
Gender Sterotyping

Societys institution, including the


family, schools, government, the church
and media, reinforce a biased perception
of women as the weaker sex and thier
roles, functions and abilities as primarily
tied to the home;
Multiple burden

Super Woman Effect


Violence against women

Women become victims of all forms of


violence, like battering, rape, sexual
harassment, simply because they are
women and occupy a subordinate status;
Reported Cases 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Rape 997 927 659 837 811 770 1,042 832 1,030
Incestuous Rape 38 46 26 22 28 27 19 23 33
Attempted Rape 194 148 185 147 204 167 268 201 256
Acts of Lasciviousness 580 536 382 358 445 455 745 625 721
Physical Injuries 3,553 2,335 1,892 1,505 1,307 1,498 2,018 1,588 1,744
Sexual Harassment 53 37 38 46 18 54 83 63 41
RA 9262 218 924 1,269 2,387 3,599 5,285 9,974 9,021 11,531
Threats 319 223 199 182 220 208 374 213 240
Seduction 62 19 29 30 19 19 25 15 10
Concubinage 121 102 93 109 109 99 158 128 146
RA 9208 17 11 16 24 34 152 190 62 41
Abduction/Kidnapping 29 16 34 23 28 18 25 22 20
Unjust Vexation 90 50 59 59 83 703 183 155 156
TOTAL 6,271 5,37 4,86 5,72 8,90 9,48 15,10 12,9 15,96
4 1 9 5 5 4 48 9
FOUR PROCESSES IN A CHILDS
LEARNING OF GENDER ROLES
AND IDENTITY
1. MANIPULATION

FIRST STAGE where people treat boys


and girls differently
Ex.
Female infants more delicately handled
than males
2. CANALIZATION

SECOND STAGE people direct childrens


attention to gender-appropriate objects.

Exemplified by choice of TOYS.


3. VERBAL APPELATION
-THIRD STAGE people used words to
tell children what they are: brave boy
or pretty girls;

: boys dont cry or girls do not climb trees


4. ACTIVITY EXPOSURE
FOURTH STAGE Children familiarized with
gender appropriate tasks.
Girls expected and encouraged to:
- help their mothers in household tasks;
- take care of younger siblings; etc
Boys are allowed and encouraged to play or work
outside the home
4. ACTIVITY EXPOSURE
MASS MEDIA
Gender stereotype images of men and women
Women: limiting or negative images:
* Housewives; loving mothers & wives
* Martyrs, victims, mistresses
* Scheming & villainies
Men: expansive or positive images
* Strong physically, etc
* Determined & courageous
* Principled
Perspectives of Gender
And Development (GAD)
GAD:

recognizes the unequal


status and situation of
women and men in society.
It questions societys social,
economical and political structures
and validity of the gender roles
they ascribe to women and men.
Itcontends that women are active
agents of development and not
just passive recipients of
development assistance.
It stresses the need for women to
organize themselves and participate
in political processes to strengthen
their legal rights
Statistics on Filipino Women
Women Men

Labor force
participation rate (1998) 49.3 82.9

Employment-Population
Ratio (1994-1997) 44.8 76.2

Proportion in 3rd Level Positions in


Government (1997) 32.46 67.54

Percent of Union Leadership 20.7 79.3

Number of Elected Positons (1998) 2,684 17,460

Average Earnings (1990) P 0.34 P 1.00

Source: National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women Factsheet (NCRFW), 2000