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Food preservation operates according to

three principles, namely:


1. Prevention or delay of microbial
decomposition
2. Prevention or delay of self decomposition
of foods
3. Prevention of damage because of external
factors such as insects, rodents, dust, odor,
fumes, and mechanical, fire, heat or water
damage.
1.Prevention or delay of microbial
decomposition

A. ASEPSIS process of keeping


microorganisms out of food
and its surroundings.
Proper packaging of the
product
Maintenance of sanitary
conditions
1.Prevention or delay of microbial
decomposition

B. Removal of microorganisms
Washing
trimming ingredients
discarding dirt
filtering clear liquid
1.Prevention or delay of microbial
decomposition

C. Hindering the growth and


activity of microorganisms
Low temperature freezing
Drying reduces moisture
Maintenance of anaerobic
conditions removal of air; e.g.
hotdogs, bacon
Uses of chemicals - preservatives
1.Prevention or delay of microbial
decomposition

D. Killing microorganisms by
heat or irradiation
Microorganisms are killed by
heat
2.Prevention or delay of self
decomposition of food

A. Destroying or inactivating
food enzymes
Blanching is an example of
this kind of prevention
Low temperature
Chemical preservatives
Drying
2.Prevention or delay of self
decomposition of food

B. Preventing oxidation
with the use of
antioxidants
Oxygen speeds up
decomposition of food,
antioxidants deprives food
from oxygen.
Ex. Butter, margarine and
other fatty foods
3. Prevention of damage because of external factors
such as insects, rodents, dust, odor, fumes, and
mechanical, fire, heat or water damage.

Styrofoam boxes, cartons,


and shock absorbing
materials
Sealed tight , vacuum -
packed
High temperature:
safest and most reliable
steam under pressure (eg cooker): kills all
vegetative cells and spores
accurate combination of temerature and
time
thermal death point of microorganisms
1. Canning
It is a two-step process
First the food is prepared by being packed
into containers, which are then sealed.
Then the containers are canned, or heated
to ensure that all microorganisms are
destroyed.
Temperature used rages betn 100-121C ie for
high acid and low acid food resp.
2. Pasteurization:
A food preservation process that heats
liquids to 160F (71C) for 15 seconds
(HTST), or
143F (62C) for 30 minutes, in order to
kill bacteria, yeasts, and molds (LTH).
3. Sterilization:
The elimination of all microorganisms
through extended boiling/heating to
temperatures much higher than boiling or
through the use of certain chemicals.
For eg, milk sterilization is done at
300F(148.9C) for 1-2 sec.
Low temperature:
Refrigeration slows down the biological,
chemical, and physical reactions that shorten the
shelf life of food.
For safety purposes, refrigerators should be kept
between just above freezing to no more than
40F (4C).
All perishable foods should be refrigerated as
soon as possible, preferably during transport, to
prevent bacteria from multiplying
Freezing makes water unavailable to
microorganisms.

The chemical and physical reactions leading


to deterioration are slowed by freezing.

Before freezing product is steamed to


inactivate enzymes

Quick freeze methods: -32C or lower,


forms small ice crystals, food cell
structures unaffected
Some of the problems arising from low temp.
preservation:

Rancid: The breakdown of the


polyunsaturated fatty acids in fats that
results in disagreeable odors and flavors.

Freezer burn: White or grayish patches on


frozen food caused by water evaporating into
the packages air spaces
Dehydration:
To remove at least 95% of the water from foods
by the use of high temperatures.
Drying is the food preservation process
that consists of removing the foods
water, which effectively inhibits the
growth of microorganisms. Like:
Sun Drying or air drying
The preservative effect is mainly due to
biostatsis.
Commercial Drying
The most important types of commercial
drying are:
Conventional: heat.
Vacuum: pulls the water out.
Osmotic: water drawn out by
osmosis.
Freeze-drying: ice crystals
vaporize.
Fermentation:
Not all microorganisms are harmful to food
Some organisms are able to produce acid
which can stop the growth of harmful
microorganisms
Fermentation oxidation of carbohydrates,
resulting in the production of acid and
alcohol, Acetic bacteria through the
presence of oxygen produce acetic acid
Irradiation:
Foods are subjected to gamma rays, UV
rays

UV rays are less effective

Gamma rays or other ionizing radiations


are more lethal.