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Copyright 2012 Pearson

Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing as Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012 Pearson
16- 1
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Define motivation
Compare and contrast early theories of
motivation
Compare and contrast contemporary theories of
motivation
Discuss current issues in motivation

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing2012
as Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16- 2
Prentice Hall
What Is Motivation?
Motivation is the process by which a
persons efforts are energized, directed,
and sustained toward attaining a goal.
3 key elements in the process
Energy-measure of intensity and drive
Direction-effort is channeled towards a
direction that benefits the organization
Persistence-employees should persist in
putting effort

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Content Theories of
Motivation
1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
2. Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Theory
Every person has a hierarchy of 5
needs- physiological, safety, social,
esteem, and self-actualization.
Each level in the needs hierarchy must
be substantially satisfied before the
next level becomes dominant. An
individual gradually moves up the
hierarchy pyramid.

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Exhibit 16-1: Maslows
Hierarchy of Needs

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs Theory (cont.)
Physiological needs - a persons
needs for food, drink, shelter, sexual
satisfaction, and other physical needs.
Safety needs - a persons needs for
security and protection from physical
and emotional harm.
Social needs - a persons needs for
affection, belongingness, acceptance,
and friendship.
Copyright 2012 Pearson
Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs Theory (cont.)
Esteem needs - a persons needs
for internal factors (e.g., self-respect,
autonomy, and achievement) and
external factors (such as status,
recognition, and attention).
Self-actualization needs - a
persons need to become what he or
she is capable of becoming.

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Criticism of Maslows Theory
Real life claims/tests show deficiencies in
Maslows Theory
Practical evidence points to lesser
number of levels (less than 5)
Physiological and safety needs are
arranged in hierarchical fashion
But beyond that point any one of the
needs might be the single most important
one depending on the individual.

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Herzbergs Two-Factor
Theory
Herzberg wanted to know when people felt
satisfied and when they felt dissatisfied about
their job.

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
16- 10
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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

Hygiene factors - factors that eliminate job


dissatisfaction, but dont motivate.
Motivators - factors that increase job
satisfaction and motivation.

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Exhibit 16-2: Herzbergs Two
Factor Theory

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Criticism of Herzbergs
Theory
Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers are not
the same for everyone.
One persons satisfier might be
another persons disatisfier

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Process Theories
of Motivation
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory
Reinforcement Theory

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Equity Theory
Equity theory - an employee compares
his or her jobs output-input ratio with
that of comparable others and then
corrects any inequity.

Correction of Inequity happens through


Higher/lower productivity
Improved/reduced quality of output
Increased absenteeism
Voluntary resignation
Copyright 2012 Pearson
Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Exhibit 16-8: Equity Theory

Referent - the person or system against which


individuals compare themselves

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Expectancy Theory
An individual tends to act in a certain
way based on the expectation that
the act will be followed by a certain
outcome and
on the attractiveness of that outcome

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Exhibit 16-9: Expectancy Model

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Expectancy Theory
There are 3 Expectancy Relationships
Expectancy (effort-performance linkage)
The perceived probability that an individuals
effort will result in a certain level of performance.
Instrumentality (performance-outcome
linkage)
The perception that a particular level of
performance will result in attaining a desired
outcome (reward).
Valence (attractiveness of reward linkage)
The attractiveness/importance of the performance
reward (outcome) to the individual.
Copyright 2012 Pearson
Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Reinforcement Theory
Behavior is a function of its
consequences.
Consequences immediately following a
behavior which increase the probability
that the behavior will be repeated are
called Reinforcers.
Managers can use positive reinforcers to
influence employee behavior and
motivate employees to achieve
organizational goals
Copyright 2012 Pearson
Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Job Design
The way tasks are combined to form
complete jobs.
Jobs should be designed keeping in mind
the environment
technology
employee skill and preferences.
Only then do jobs become motivating.

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Job Design
Managers design motivating jobs through
1. Job enlargement - the horizontal expansion of a
job that occurs as a result of increasing job scope.
Job Scope: The number of different tasks required
to complete a job.
2. Job enrichment - the vertical expansion of a
job, that occurs as a result of additional planning
and evaluation of responsibilities. This results in
increased job depth.
Job depth - the degree of control employees have
over their work.

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Core Dimensions of Job
Jobs can be enriched by upgrading 5 core
dimensions of work.
1.Skill Variety: the degree to which the job
requires different skills and talents in a
person
2.Task Identity: doing the job from
beginning to end with a visible outcome.
3.Task Significance: the degree to which
the job has a substantial impact on the lives
of others
Copyright 2012 Pearson
Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
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Core Dimensions of Job
4. Autonomy: the degree to which the
job provides substantial freedom,
independence and discretion to
person performing the job
5. Job Feedback: the degree to which
there is clear information regarding
the effectiveness of the the job being
done.

Copyright 2012 Pearson


Education,
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter Inc. Publishing asPearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2012
16- 24
Prentice Hall