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Molecular

biology
Basics concepts
(A)Molecular biology
Molecular biology is the branch of biology that
deals with the molecular basis of biological
activity.
This field overlaps with other areas of biology
and chemistry , particularly genetics and
biochemistry.
(B)Genetics
The scientific discipline dealing with:-(1)The
study of inheritance and variation of biological
traits.
(2)The study of genes , including their structure ,
function , variation , and transmission.
(C)Molecular genetics
Subdivision of genetics which studies the
structure and functioning of genes at the
molecular level.
(D)The Cell
The cell is the basic structural, functional and
biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cells come from pre-existing cells.
Types of cells

(1)Prokaryotic cells (2)Eukaryotic cell

(1)Prokaryotic cells
Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that are
the earliest and most primitive forms of life on
earth.
Prokaryotes still make up the majority of the
earths biomass.
Their total population (46 1030 cells)
constitutes the largest living reservoir of the
Prokaryotes are able to live and thrive in various
types of environments including extreme habitats
such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, swamps,
wetlands, and the guts of animals.
The superkingdom containing all
microorganisms that lack a membrane-bound
nucleus containing chromosomes.
The superkingdom Prokaryotes contains one
kingdom, the Monera.
Prokaryotes include Archaea (ancient ones)
and bacteria.
Prokaryotic cell Structure
Prokaryotic cells are not as complex as
eukaryotic cells.
They have no true nucleus as the DNA is not
contained within a membrane or separated from
the rest of the cell, but is coiled up in a region of
the cytoplasm called the nucleoid.
Using bacteria as our sample prokaryote, the
following structures can be found in bacterial
cells:-
(2)Eukaryotic cells
A cell that possesses a membrane-enclosed
nucleus.
Chromosomes built of DNA and protein, a
cytoskeleton and a variety of membrane bound
membrane.
The superkingdom containing all organisms that
are, or consist of, cells with true nuclei bounded
by nuclear envelopes and that undergo meiosis.
The superkingdom contains four kingdoms: -the
Protoctista, evocator the morphogenically active
chemical the Fungi, the Animalia, and the
Eukaryotic cell Structure
(E)Nucleic acids
Nucleic acid are two types:-(i)Deoxyribonucleic
acid(DNA).
(ii)Ribonucleic acid(RNA).
These are important organic substances found
in nucleus and cytoplasm.
They control the important biosynthetic
activities of the cell and carry hereditary
information from generation to generation.
Thus , nucleic acids are macromolecules of the
utmost biological importance.
They are associated with the chromosomes and
transmit various information to cytoplasm.
All the hereditary (genetic) information of the
cell (i.e., all the information necessary to
reproduce and maintain a new organism) is
stored in coded form in molecules of DNA.
DNA is replicated and distributed to daughter
cells during cell division , and in this way all the
hereditary information accumulated over billions
of years of evolution is passed from cell to cell
and from one generation of an organism to
another.
With the aid of RNA ,this information is
expressed as specific patterns of protein
Nucleic acids consist of a sugar (pentose) ,
nitrogenous bases (purines and pyrimidines) , and
phosphoric acid.
A nucleic acid is a linear polymer in which
nucleotides are linked together by means of
phosphodiester bonds.
These bonds link the 3 carbon in the pentose of
one nucleotide to the 5 carbon in the pentose of
adjacent nucleotide.
Thus the backbone of a nucleic acid consists of
alternating phosphates and pentoses.
The nitrogenous bases are attached to the
sugars of this backbone.
(F)Genome
A genome is a complete set of DNA, including all
of its genes.
Each genome contains all of the information
needed to build and maintain that organism.
In humans, a copy of the entire genomemore
than 3 billion DNA base pairsis contained in all
cells that have a nucleus.
(G)Chromosome
A structure, consisting of DNA and protein, that
carries the genes.
Thread like structure.
Located in the cell nucleus.
The storage place for all genetic information.
The number of chromosomes varies from one
species to another.
(H)Gene
(I)Allele
(K)Genotype and phenotype
(L)Polymorphism
The existence of two or more genetically
different classes in the same population.

(M)Mutations
A change in the chemical structure of a gene
(DNA).