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Biotechnology

By: Mireya Patino, Jasmine Bonnet, Jasmine Baskin,


and Caroline Fulton
History Of Biotechnology
Some key events of the development of Biotechnology:

1942: Penicillin is mass produced for the first time.

1958: DNA is made in a test tube for the first time.

1979: Human Growth Hormone is synthesized for the first time.

1995: Gene Therapy, immune system modulation, and recombinantly produced antibodies in the clinic for the war and this
was to fight cancer.

2004: UN Food and Agricultural Organization stated that Biotechnology is a complementary tool for traditional farming
methods.

2009: FDA approves the first genetically engineered animal for production.
Ethical Considerations
Biotechnology can allow more resources for the world population to increase.

Food production can go up due to the genetic engineering to be altered so they


can become pest resistant.

Cheaper and more effective medicines are being able to be created.


Stem Cells
History: This research showed that there were certain types of cells that could generate blood cells. In 1968, the first
transplant occurred to siblings and it was showing signs of a success rate.

Ethical Considerations: To get the cell, this means an embryo must be destroyed which is taking a human life in many
peoples eyes. This is highly controversial.

Major Consequence 1: Some common side effects people have after getting a transplant is nausea, vomiting, and hair loss
to the radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Major Consequence 2: Our bodies easily reject things and that is very common. While choosing to get this transplant,
bodies could reject the stem cell and that can result into fatal matters.
Stem Cells
Major Benefit 1: Stem cells can be used as a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues. This just means these
cells can treat common diseases and infections without having to do organ transplants or major surgeries like macular
degeneration.

Major Benefit 2: Studying stem cells with common diseases like cancer, scientists can see where the error occurred and
can help fix the problem which can help lives.

Opinion of Transplants/ Research: Researchers shouldnt be continuing the research because in my opinion, we shouldnt
be taking ones life to help another. I feel like it shouldnt work that way.
Cloning
History: The person to first attempt as todays society as cloning was done with sea urchins. Overtime, scientists found
out that much of the focusing should be done on the nucleus to get cloning working with transfers etc.

Ethical Considerations: Some issues scientists look at ethically are genetic and physical damage to the clone, health risks
to the mother, very low success rate, and commodification of human life.

Major Benefit 1: Cloning can help parents who are infertile have the ability to have children.

Major Benefit 2: To people who had an impact to our society, these people could even be recreated.

Major Consequence 1: Even if you cloned the person, they could have a totally different personality and be completely
different than what a person desired.

Major Consequence 2: New genetic diseases can be formed by cloning which can be damaging to the population.

Opinion: I believe that cloning should not be a thing. Youre a individual person and from the facts Ive read, the clone
version of whoever the person is will not be exactly the same and major consequences can come with cloning.
GMOs
History: European plant scientists began using Gregor Mendels genetic theory to manipulate and improve the plant
species. A plant of one variety is crossed with a related plant to produce desired characteristics. James Watson discovered
the three-dimensional double helix structure of DNA and began to work from there.

Ethical Considerations Most people dont like the idea of GMOs because they believe that their food should be natural and
unprocessed. A majority of people also believe that GMOs are unhealthy and will do terrible things to your body.

Major Consequence #1: Most of the concern surrounding GMOs relates to their potential for negative effects on the
environment and humans

Major Consequence #2: Health effects of primary concern to safety assessors are production of new allergens, increased
toxicity, decreased nutrition, and antibiotic resistance

Major Benefit #1:GMOs conserve water, soil, and energy

Major Benefit #2 Create a way to make it so that plants become resistant to weeds and bugs trying to eat them

Opinion: GMOs should be used more often because they are sufficient and can help people with a lot of different things
Criminal Forensics
History:

Despite common misconceptions, forensic investigation has been practiced, in one form or another, for thousands of years.
Before the discovery and the impact of DNA in the early 1980s, the advert of fingerprinting in the early 1800s and even
photographs were used in the late 1800s to capture images of killers on a victim's eyeballs, as was the case of the
investigation of the worlds first documented serial killer, Jack the Ripper, criminal investigators were using the science of
forensics to solve crimes.

Ethical Considerations:

The ethical consideration for this job is that during the job, you are supposed to keep everything in order and clean. This is
to keep anything from contaminating the evidence. Your job is to use the evidence to find clues, fingerprints, and etc to help
the cops find who committed the crime. Finding this evidence allows the cops to find and prove that a person committed a
crime. The evidence shows in court that the person did what is being accused. The judge decides if that person is guilty or
not, then says how long they would be in jail.
Criminal Forensics
Major consequence #1:

- Defense lawyers are saying that this makes their lives more difficult. They are having to explain and try to prove why certain
types of evidence are irrelevant.

Major consequence #2:

- Criminals are learning things that can help cover their tracks, this means that the science they do to find out clues and things
about the criminal can not be found because those criminals have destroyed the evidence.

Major Benefit #1:

- More criminals are being caught due to the advance in the science that the scientists use

Major Benefit #2:

- Evidence is what proves innocent people innocent and guilty people guilty

Opinion: I think this is something that should be used because it helps catch criminals , gives evidence to prove, this is proven
evidence not just something someone says, and this is how they prove in court that someone has committed a crime
Genetic Engineering and Reproduction
History?

1982 - First proposals for human gene transfer experiments

1996 - First mammal cloned (sheep)

March 2000 - A pig is cloned

February 2002 - Scientists at Texas A&M University announce that they cloned a cat in December,
the first cloning of a house pet

August 2005 - A dog, mice, horse, mule, pig, and more have been cloned.

October 2006 - Genetic Savings and Clone closes, due to lack of demand for cloned pets
Genetic Engineering and Reproduction

Ethical Considerations?

Currently, scientists are developing ways to develop traits that can end up making the world
easier to live in and provide better resources. Scientists are learning how to genetically engineer
potatoes for protein, and rice for more vitamin A. There have also been recent studies where
edible vaccines are being genetically engineered.

Opinion?
Genetic engineering has been able to help make many foods more productive and have more
uses. This can benefit the human race because resources can be changed to last longer and have
more benefits.
Genetic Engineering and Reproduction
Benefits: Consequences:
- Boosts nutrition in food - Unknown side effects or
outcomes
- Eliminates Diseases
- Unpredicted allergic reactions in
- Reduces diversity people
- Better harvests by being able to - Could become toxic to some
create crops that are disease organisms
and pest resistant.
Sources
https://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/4.htm

http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=3157

https://www.universalclass.com/articles/law/history-of-forensic-investigation.htm

http://www.sciencemag.org/sites/default/files/styles/article_main_large/public/StemCells.jpg?itok=drHpPJAN (Image on
Slide 5)

https://www.bio.org/articles/history-biotechnology

https://occupytheory.org/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-cloning/

http://www.ask-force.org/web/History/Chassy-History-Future-2007.pdf