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How Cellular Information

Is Altered

Neil Dominic D. Careo


Dominick Llarena
John Rhen Uy
MUTATION
Definition of terms

PHENOTYPE
- characteristics expressed by a cell
-Reversible

GENOTYPE
- Sum of the genetic construction of an organism
-Irreversible

MUTATION
-is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the
genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or
other genetic elements
The diversity of beetle species.
Genetic mutation is the basis of species diversity
among beetles, or any other organism.
Types of Mutation
Hereditary Mutation
- the mutated genetic code can be passed on to the next
generations
Aquired Mutation
-depends on what sort of environment a person lives in as some
environmental agents can damage the DNA or when mistakes occur
during cell division.
Mutation Caused by Changes in
Structure

Nonsense or Point Mutation


results from the change of a single base (for example, cytosine
instead of thymine).
Missense mutation
- This type of mutation is a change in one DNA base pair that
results in the substitution of one amino acid for another in the
protein made by a gene.
Insertion
An insertion changes the number of DNA bases in a gene by
adding a piece of DNA. As a result, the protein made by the gene
may not function properly.
Deletion
A deletion changes the number of DNA bases by removing a
piece of DNA.
Duplication
- A duplication consists of a piece of DNA that is abnormally copied
one or more times. This type of mutation may alter the function of
the resulting protein.
Frameshift Mutation
This type of mutation occurs when the addition or loss of DNA
bases changes a gene's reading frame.
Repeat Expansion
- a mutation that increases the number of times that the short DNA
sequence is repeated. This type of mutation can cause the resulting
protein to function improperly.
Selection of Desirable Mutants

Selectable Mutant
- confers upon the mutant an advantage for growth or
survival under a specific set of environmental conditions;
thus, the mutant can grow and the wild type will die.

Unselectable Mutant
-requires a cell-bycell examination to find a mutant with the
desired characteristics (e.g., green pigment).
Type of Selection

Direct Selection
Indirect Selection