You are on page 1of 21

Human Development

What is Human Development?


Human Development is the scientific study of how people
change and stay the same over time.

There are two forms of Human Development: Quantitative and


Qualitative
Quantitative change refers to variation in number, amount or
size.
Examples are height, weight, age, vocabulary or IQ scores.
Qualitative change refers to a shift in kind, structure, or
organization.
Example is Now you are able to speak when previously you
couldnt.
Themes of Human Development
Several Concepts of Human Development
Development is multidimensional and integrated
It occurs throughout the life-span
Itis mark by both stability and
instability/plasticity
Itis influence by both normative and non-
normative events
Ittakes place within dynamic, and multiple
contexts
Development as Multidimensional and
Integrated
- Involves the whole individual and all of his different aspects such
as:
Physical aspect covers body structure and size, and motor skills.
Cognition aspect covers mental abilities such as learning capacity,
reasoning, and problem solving.
Personality and Emotional aspect covers experiences and feelings.
Social aspect covers the interaction and relation with others.

These aspects are interdependent and integrated. Changes in one aspect


affect other aspects. Like when a child is malnourish. His social aspect and
emotional aspect will be affected because of his appearance or body by
resulting in low self-esteem.
Development throughout the Life Span
Involves development by time or persons life cycle.
There eight stages that consist the Human Life Cycle
Prenatal from conception to birth
Infancy from birth to age 2
Early childhood from ages 2 to 7
Middle childhood from ages 7 to 11
Adolescence from ages 11 to 20
Young Adulthood from ages 20s to 40s
Middle Adulthood from ages 40s to 60s
Late Adulthood from ages 60s onward
Many developmental psychologists pay special attention to early experiences
in infancy and childhood. These are the critical and sensitive period that
are having a big impact to the development of a child.
Stability and Plasticity in Development

Stabilityinvolves the characteristics of a child


that tend to be stable or unchanging.
Example for stability are shyness, extraversion, and neuroticism.
These are may be due to biological factors and traits that are
strongly genetically based and are difficult to modify.

Plasticityinvolves the changes of environments,


relationships, and other event in life that can
change persons characteristics whether good or
bad.
Normative and non-normative influences
in development
Normative influences are biological and environmental
influences on development in a given group. They may be
age-graded or history graded.

Example for age grade is when an adolescent undergo


puberty while for history graded is the effects of the
world war 2 on our grandparents development.
Normative experiences contribute to a certain extent to
universality or commonality in peoples development.
Non normative is when an individual experience different
situations or events. Like accidents, illness, etc.
Development in Context
Involves the surrounding environment of an
individual.
Kinds of environment
Microsystem ex. Relationship of a child with his parents in
home, a student with his teacher in school.
Mesosystem ex. Parents involve in school activities of their
child.
Exosystem ex. Parents work environment, job stress,
arguments with supervisors. The individual is not directly
involve with this.
Macrosystem ex. Belief system, sociocultural practices
Chronosystem ex. Migration, oversea work
Rubics Cube approach to development:
Integrating the multidimensional and contextual
perspectives

Proposed by Ma. Lourdes Arellano-Carandang, a child


psychologist
There are four dimension to understand a child.
First dimension views the child as a total person with physical,
intellectual, socio-emotional, and moral/spiritual facets.
Second dimension is based to the developmental level of the
child;
Third dimension is based to the context of the family and
community;
Fourth dimension is based to the concerns of the child for what is
happening around him.
Issues in Human Development

The Nature versus Nurture Controversy


Continuity
versus Discontinuity in
Development
The Nature versus Nurture Controversy
Biological factors refer to hereditary characteristics,
maturation, and other predispositions and behaviours
already present, or innate in the individual at birth.
The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in Modern Life by
Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray

Environmental factors refer to experiences, learning, and


influences found in the home, at school, and in socio
cultural contexts.
High/Scope Perry Preschool Project of Weikart & Schweinhart,
1997 and the Abecedarian Intervention Program of Ramey &
Ramey, 1998
Continuity versus Discontinuity in
Development
Continuous is when behaviours increase and
decrease over time.
Ex. Height and weight, Thinking capacity
Discontinuousis when behaviours exhibit more
fundamentals, transformational change over time.
Ex. Based in Jean Piagets Theory Infants are in
sensorimotor stage (thinking is non-symbolic but is
based on sensory and motor action), while adolescents
are in formal stage ( think in an abstract and complex
fashion).
Early Beginnings
Prenatal Development
Germinal Stage fertilization to 2 weeks
Zygote was produce
Blastocyst was produced by the cell division of zygote
Embryonic Stage 2 to 8 weeks
Form the major body system (respiratory, circulatory, and nervous), organs,
tissues and other body parts
Teratogen is any substance, agent, or influence that causes malformation in
the developing organism(alcohol, nicotine, drugs).
Fetal Stage 8 to 37 and 40 weeks
Enlargement of the organism
The brain is still developing
The organism becomes active. It kicks, turns, sucks its thumb and respond to
vibration and sound.
Capacities of the New-born
Reflexes
Rooting Reflex like searching for nipple
Sucking he begins to sucks when stimulus is place on his lips
Palmar Reflex elicited when a finger is placed on his hand and have a strong grasp
The Five Senses at Birth
Sense of hearing able to recognize or familiarize his mothers voice
Sense of taste able to taste sweet over sour, salty or bitter
Sense of smell able to distinguish between different odors
Sense of touch babies are sensitive to touch in their first moments in life. Also in
temperature.
Sense of vision practically blind or cannot see

Capacities for Learning and Memory


They have the ability to learn within the first few hours of life.
They have the capacity to imitate smiles, sticking out the tongue, grimace
of someone, especially their mother
Jean Piagets Theory of Cognitive
Development
Jean Piaget believe that childs thinking is unique in its
own way.
Children seek actively to better understand their world
and interacting with their environment.
He believes that their mental structures and ways of
knowing are qualitatively different from adults.
He believes also that child is an Active constructor of
knowledge
Piagetian Concepts:
Major Assumptions, Terms, and Concepts
Schemas
Basic unit of intellect
Making sense of our experiences, organize our interactions with the
environment, and interpret the external world.
Assimilation
Process of interpreting new information and experiences according to
ones existing schemes.
Accommodation
Process of modifying existing schemes to better fit the new stimulus or
information.
Allowing us to adapt more effectively
Equilibration
When schemes that emerge are in accordance with the demands and
information from the external world.
The Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage ( from birth to 2 years )
This stage the infant is eager to learn and explore the world
Little scientist
Applying their sensory and motor skills
Decentration, intentionality, object permanence three abilities that gradually
develop
Preoperational Stage ( 2 to 7 years )
Development of Representational or symbolic thinking
Can use words to think, learn, and communicate about the world.
Centration refers to childs propensity to focus or attend to only one aspect of a
stimulus at a time.
Inability to conserve - cannot conserve number, nor mass
Reversibilty focusing on the end state only.
Egocentrism inability to consider the viewpoints other than his own.
Concrete Operational Stage ( 7 to 11 years )
More logical and flexible
Capable of seriation ( ability to sort or order )
Capable of classifying
Capable of transitive reasoning ( able to compare )
Formal Operational Stage ( 11 to beyond )
Highest stage
Can reasons logically, starting from premises and
drawing conclusions
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Describe by Piaget
to the manner of thinking of an Adolescent
Lawrence Kohlbergs Theory of Moral
Development
Moral
reasoning is not equivalent to moral
behaviour.
This
theory is based to major influences
Jean Piaget and Immanuel Kant
The Stages of Moral Development
Preconventional Morality - egocentric
Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience orientation define good or bad in terms of obedience
Stage 2: Reward orientation morally right behaviour depends on what can satisfy ones
need or desire.
Conventional Morality sociocentric ( considering others viewpoint )
Stage 3: Good boy/ Good girl orientation Good or right is based on others expectations
and is pleasing to them.
Stage 4: Social System Orientation ( justice orientation ) Being right or good is based on
laws and order, duty, and legitimate authority.
Postconventional Morality
Stage 5: Morality of Social Contrast and Democracy Moral reasoning relies on fundamental
principles such as individual rights, equality, human dignity, contractual agreement, and
mutual obligation. Philippine constitution is example for this moral Philosophy.
Stage 6: Morality of individual principles of Conscience Moral reasoning go beyond any
social order or social contract. Examples are Jose Rizal.
The Process of Moral Development

Evaluating Kohlbergs Theory


This
theory is applicable to all individuals
regardless of their culture and background.
Moralreasoning is influence by Education,
Culture, and Gender.
This
theory remains one of the influential in the
realm of Morality.