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# TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

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Viscosity
A measure of resistance to shear or
angular deformation
High viscosity fluids are cohesive and feel
sticky
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WHY IS VISCOSITY IMPORTANT?
Many industrial process require liquids to be delivered
through pipes. A pipe in an industrial process may limit
the flow rate of materials in the same way as the narrow
neck of a viscometer. The flow rate of liquids in these
pipes is dependent on the viscosity. Adding pressure to
flowing liquids may increase the flow rate but high
viscosity liquids still flow more slowly than low viscosity
liquids.

## Consider the pressure that you would need to apply in

order to force MOLASSES through a smalltube at the
same flow rate that water merely runs through the same
tube.
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## kinematic viscosities with temperature for

assorted liquids and gases.
In general, liquid viscosity DECREASES
with Temperature and Gas viscosity
INCREASES with temperature
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## NEWTONS EQUATION OF VISCOSITY

= F/A = (U/Y) = du/dy
Which describes the shearing stress
between any two this sheets of fluid with
as a constant of proportionality.
Sir Isaac Newton 1st suggested this
equation.
Rearranged: = /(du/dy)
In this form: : = /(du/dy)
Where du/dy is the velocity gradient
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N s/m2 in SI units
Frequently stated in poise (P)
Poise = 0.10 N s/m2
Centipoise (cP) (=0.01P=1mN s/m2)
Viscosity of water at 68.4F is 1 cP
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## This is the absolute viscosity divided by density

This is usually in m2/s in SI
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE ?
Absolute viscosity is essentially INDEPENDENT of
pressure, as it has no density dependence

## Kinematic viscosity --especially of gases-- is strongly

dependent on pressure, as it is density dependent.

## If you need kinematic viscosity at a non-standard

pressure, look up the absolute viscosity and then use:

Which will require the gas density, (calculate with equation 2.4 if
necessary)
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## If , or the absolute viscosity does not

change with the rate of deformation, it is
called a Newtonian fluid.

## If is infinite, it is an elastic solid

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SURFACE TENSION
This is another form of molecular
attraction/cohesion
Cohesion allows resistance to tensile stress
Capillary rise is the result of these:
h= 2 cos /r
h is height of rise, is surface tension, is wetting
angle, is specific weight of liquid, and r is radius of the
tube
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Example:

## Two vertical, parallel, clean, glass plates are spaced a

distance of 2 mm apart. If the plates are placed in water
how high will the water rise between the plate due to
capillary action:

Solution:
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Example :

## An open, clean glass tube, having a diameter of 3 mm,

inserted vertically into a dish of mercury at 20 oC.
How far will the column of mercury in the tube be
depressed ?

Solution :
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Example:

Solution:
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Example :
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Solution:
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## IDEAL versus REAL FLUID FLOW

Recall that an ideal fluid has NO viscosity, and thus no shear
stress between fluid layers
No boundary layers
A real fluid includes the effects of viscosity, and thus has boundary
layers, and a velocity distribution
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Other Clasifications
Compressible/ Incompressible
We treat most fluids as incompressible, but generally consider compressibility of
gases.

Laminar/ Turbulent
Regular or irregular particle paths

## Supercritical/subcritical (chapter 10)

Used in open channel flow

With respect to variations in time

Uniform/Nonuniform
Size and shape of flow cross-section
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