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COMMUNICABLE

DIESESES
WHAT IS DENGUE
INFECTION?
Dengue is a mosquito-borne
viral infection that causes flu-like
symptoms and occasionally
develops into a potentially fatal
complication such as dengue
hemorrhagic fever.
It may affect ANYONE in the
community but seldom causes
death if detected early.
WHAT ARE THE USUAL SIGNS
AND SYMPTOMS OF DENGUE ?
1.HIGH-GRADE FEVER
2.JOINT AND MUSCLE PAIN
3.SKIN RASHES
4.LOSS OF APPETITE
5.NAUSEA/VOMITING
DANGER SIGNS OF POSSIBLE
BLEEDING FROM DENGUE
INFECTION MAY PRESENT
WITH ANY OF THE
FOLLOWING:
1. Nose bleeding usually when the
fever subsides
2. Abdominal pain
3. Vomiting of coffee-ground vomitus
4. Dark-colored stools
5. Difficulty of breathing
*Go to the nearest health facility within
the community if there are any of the
signs and symptoms of dengue
infection.
4S AGAINTS DENGUE
1. Search and destroy
Cover water containers which may
serve as breeding sites of dengue
mosquitoes
Replace water of flower vases at
least once a week
Regularly clean gutters of leaves and
debris
Dispose all unused materials that
can collect and hold water
2. Self Protection
Use mosquito repellant or
mosquito nets
Wear long pants
3. Seek early medical consultation if
there is/are:
Persistent fever for more than 2 days
Rashes
Any signs of possible internal
bleeding
Nose bleeding usually when the
fever subsides
Abdominal pain
Vomiting of coffee-ground vomitus
Dark-colored stools
4. Say yes to fogging ONLY
WHEN there is an impending
outbreak or hotspot
WHAT IS HEPATITIS?
Hepatitis A is a viral infection
that is preventable and curable.
It is transmitted through the oro-
fecal route(i.e., from ingestion of
food contaminated with human
waste or urine of persons who
also have Hepatitis A infection).
Hepatitis B is preventable but NOT
curable. It is transmitted in various
ways:
From mother to child during
childbirth
Through blood transfusion
Through sharing of contaminated or
infected sharp objects (e.g.,
needles).
Through sexual intercourse with an
infected individual
Hepatitis C is also preventable but
NOT curable. There is No vaccine for
Hepatitis C. It is transmitted through
any of the following :
Through blood transfusion
Through sharing of contaminated
or infected sharp objects (e.g.,
needles).
Through sexual intercourse with an
infected individual
What are the usual signs and
symptoms of Hepatitis?
The usual signs and symptoms of Hepatitis
A include any of the following:
Fever
Flu-like symptoms (e.g., muscle and joint
pains, loss of appetite)
Fatigue or tiredness
Abdominal discomfort
Dark/brownish urine
Yellowish discoloration
The usual signs and symptoms of
Hepatitis B include any of the :
Weakness
Stomach upset
Dark urine or very pale stools
Yellowish discoloration of the
eyes or jaundice
HEPATITIS B carriers have no
symptoms
Infected individuals with Hepatitis C
usually have no symptoms but may
also present with any of the following:
Headache
Nausea and vomiting
Abdominal Pain
Yellowish discoloration of the eyes or
skin
Weakness and fatigue
Dark yellowish urine, light-colored
stools, and yellowish eyes
How can it be prevented or
controlled?
Proper hand washing techniques after using
the toilet, before preparing food, and before
eating is still the best and practical method to
prevent the spread of Hepatitis B.
Transmission of Hepatitis B infection from
mother to child during childbirth can be
prevented through complete (3 doses)
immunization of Hepa B vaccine. Hepa B
immunoglobulin is also given in addition to
the 3 doses of Hepa B vaccine for newborns
who have mothers properly diagnosed with
Hepa B.
Mutual monogamous relationship between
couples, consistent practice of safe sex
among those with multiple partners, and
avoid use of any object that may be
contaminated with the blood of an infected
person are practical methods to prevent
infection of both Hepatitis B and C.
Hepatitis infections DO NOT require ANY
type of antibiotic treatment.
WHAT IS INFLUENZA?
Influenza is a viral infection
commonly called flu and usually
lasts from 1-3 days even without
treatment. It is transmitted when an
infected persons coughs or sneezes,
or when there is direct contact with
contaminated surfaces, materials and
clothing of an infected person.
What are the usual signs and
symptoms of influenza?
Fever with or without joint pains
Headache
Runny nose
Sore throat
Cough

Go to the nearest BHW or RHM or health facility if


cough and fever persist despite increased oral
fluid intake and eating of nutrient-rich foods (e.g.,
citrus fruits),for more than 2 days.
How can it be prevented or controlled?

Adequate cough manners is one of the best


and practical methods to prevent its spread.
Proper hand washing techniques are also a
practical method of preventing
contamination of surfaces or clothing in the
household.
It is self-limiting and that does not usually
require treatment. It may only be treated
with rest, increased oral fluid intake and
eating nutrient-rich foods.
WHAT IS RABIES
Rabies is a deadly viral infection that
is spread by infected animals such as
dogs, cats or bats. It is transmitted
through direct contact with infected
saliva of a rabid animal (bites or
scratches).
What are the usual signs and
symptoms of Rabies?
Fever and headache
Pain or numbness of bite site
Pain or difficulty in swallowing
Fear of looking at water (hydrophobia)
Fear of air (aerophobia)
A lot of thick, sticky saliva dripping from
his/her mouth
Delirium and paralysis in severe cases
How can it be prevented?
The only way to prevent rabies infection is
to be vaccinated.
Post-exposure prophylaxis(PEP) must begin
immediately after death. PEP consists of
local treatment of: the wound right after
rabies exposure; a course of potent and
effective rabies vaccine; and, the
administration of rabies immunoglobulin, if
indicated.
Pre-exposure and post-exposure anti-
rabies vaccines are available at animal bite
treatment centers.
What is the first aid
management for animal bites?
For any incidence of animal bites, wash the
wound immediately with soap and running
water for at least 10 minute. DO NOT apply
garlic or tandok on the site of bite to avoid
contamination and further complications.
DO NOT bleed area of wound.
Go to the nearest animal bite treatment
center or health facility for proper
management.
What should pet owners do?
Have your pet vaccinated by veterinarian at 3
months old every year thereafter, or during mass
vaccination of pets scheduled in your community
If your pet has bitten any person:
Leash your pet or put it in its cage
Observe for 14 days for possible signs of
rabies
DO NOT kill or eat the dog
Assist the bitten victim to the nearest animal
bite treatment center for proper post-
exposure anti-rabies vaccination
Report to the animal bite treatment center
or health facility (where the post-exposure
anti-rabies vaccination was given) when
there are any of the following:
Pet becomes wild
Pet drools
Pet bites any moving or non-moving
objects
Pet does not eat or drink
Pet dies within the observation period
WHAT IS TUBERCULOSIS?
TB is a disease caused by
Mycobacterium bacilli acquired
through inhalation of air droplets
when an infected person coughs,
sneezes, or spits in public areas.
What are the usual signs and
symptoms of TB?
Cough for 2 weeks or more
Afternoon fever
Chest or back pain not referable to
other diseases
Loss of weight
Lack of appetite
Blood-streaked sputum
How can it be prevented or
controlled?
BCG vaccination of newborns
Active community participation:
Avoid spitting in public areas
Cover mouth when sneezing or
coughing within or outside their
household
Referral of presumptive TB patients to
trained health workers
Completion of treatment modality
WHAT IS TYPHOID FEVER?
Typhoid feve2r is a bacterial infection
caused by Salmonella typhi. It is
transmitted through the feco-oral route
(contaminated food and water is
ingested).
What are the usual signs and
symptoms of typhoid fever?
High-grade fever
Headache
Body malaise
Loss of appetite
Either diarrhea or constipation
Abdominal discomfort
*Go to the RHM or nearest health facility if high-
grade fever is persistent despite increased oral fluid
intake and Paracetamol intake.
*NEVER self-medicate with antibiotics to prevent
complications
How can it be prevented or controlled?
Proper hand washing
techniques are still the best
form of preventing its spread.