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Mains Supply Sensed Over

Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Introducti
on
 Over Voltage Under Voltage Trip Switch to protect the
load from damage. The fluctuation in AC mains supply is
frequent in homes and industries. The sensitive
electronic devices in these conditions can get easily
damaged. It is preferable to have a tripping mechanism
to protect the load.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Block
Diagram

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Hardware
Components
 LM 339 quad
comparator
 LED
 Voltage Regulator
 Resistors
 Potentiometer
 Capacitors
 Diodes
 Relay
 Lamp
 Transformer

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Transfor
mer
 Transformer is an electrical device.

 It transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits
through electromagnetic induction.

  A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a
varying magnetic field, which in turn induces a voltage in a
second coil.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Capacito
r  Capacitors store and release electrical charge.
 They are used for filtering power supply lines, tuning
resonant circuits.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Over
Voltage
 When the voltage in a circuit or part of it is raised above
its upper design limit, this is known as overvoltage.

 The conditions may be hazardous.

 Depending on its duration, the overvoltage event can be
transient - a voltage spike - or permanent, leading to a
power surge.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Low
Voltage
 Under Voltage condition occurs when a load is suddenly
connected to a power supply.

 The load will start to draw current, this causes the voltage
to temporarily drop.

 Multimeter is set to measure voltage Instruments for
measuring voltages including the voltmeter, the
potentiometer, and the oscilloscope.

 The voltmeter works by measuring the current through a
fixed resistor, which, according to Ohm's Law, is
proportional to the voltage across the resistor.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Descripti
on
 The tripping mechanism is to protect the load from
damage.

  The fluctuation in AC mains supply is frequent in
homes and industries.

 The sensitive electronic devices in these conditions
can get easily damaged. 

 The proposed system will trip the load in the event
of the input voltage falling below/above a set
value.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Descripti
on Two 555 timers are used as window comparator.
 This delivers an error output if the input voltage to them
crosses the range beyond the voltage window.

 A relay is then operated to cut-off the load for safety
reasons. A lamp is used as load in this project.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Working
Principle
 A 220 volts ac is given as a input to the transformer.

 A step down transformer is used, as it serves to reduce
the pressure remaining 12 volts, through a D1-D4
connected to Direct rectifier bridge circuit.

 This rectifier converts ac to dc but the obtained dc is not
pure dc it is a pulsating dc, to obtain pure dc we are using
regulator so that we can obtain pure dc.

 And the capacitors are used for filtering.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Working
Principle
 In the regulator the voltage across the pins 1 and 2 will be
the input and output will be from the pins 2and 3.

 Here we are using another IC which as 14 pins.

 The 4th pin in this IC act as V cc and the 11th pin will be
grounded.

 Here we are using two zener diodes of 6.8v and 6v.

 The 6.8 volts zener diode is connected to the 2nd pin of
IC2/1 and 6 volts zener diode is connected to the 5th pin of
IC2/2.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Working
Principle
 The voltage coming from the diodes D2 and D4 goes to
3rd pin of IC2/1 and 6th pin of IC2/2.

 Here IC2/1 act as high voltage detector and IC2/2 act as
low voltage detector.

 When the voltage obtained across the 3rd pin is greater
than the voltage at the 3rd pin then IC2/1(high voltage
detector) will function and the switch will be closed and
load will be and LED glows.

 This is the indication of high voltage.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Advantage
s 
High reliability

 High performance

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Disadvantag
es
 In this project, relay is used as it is making of sound. So
some noise pollution occurs.

 It is specified of minimum range of the higher voltage
and lower voltage.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Future
Scope
 This system can also be enhanced in future by interfacing it
with a GSM modem to convey alert message to the user
via SMS to take appropriate action.

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Mains Supply Sensed Over
Voltage Under Voltage Trip
Switch
Conclusio
n
 Mains supply sensed over voltage under voltage trip sw
itch
will indicate the high voltage and low voltage. Due to
this we can safe guard our home appliances without
damaging the equipments.

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