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Chapter 1: What is

Critical Thinking

Learning objectives:  Students will be able to understand critical thinking.  Student will understand the  Importance of reasoning in critical thinking  Student will identify the barriers to critical thinking .

What is Thinking? .

. What is thinking Thinking is manipulating and transforming information in memory.

What is Critical thinking critical thinking is a disciplined manner of thinking that a person uses to come on correct conclusion based on reasoned judgement. .

It is known that : (1) Nobody else could have been involved other than A. is A innocent or guilty? . The robber(s) left in a truck. There was a robbery in which a lot of goods were stolen. (3) B does not know how to drive. Fun Exercise#1. (2) C never commits a crime without A's participation. So. B and C.

Fun Exercise#2:  In a lake. If it takes 48 days for the patch to cover the entire lake. Every day. there is a patch of lily pads. how long would it take for the patch to cover half of the lake? . the patch doubles in size.

Critical thinking is always based on evaluation The ultimate of critical thinking is to come to correct conclusion. . Key features of critical thinking: There is always a purpose in critical thinking It is based on logical reasoning.

Video for critical thinking .

however. An opinion. An opinion is not always true and cannot be proven. In other words. . Key Terms • Facts and Opinion A fact is a statement that is true and can be verified objectively. or proven. a fact is true and correct no matter what. it tells how someone feels. is a statement that holds an element of belief.

opinion. . on the other hand. • A subjective claim. or personal preference. Key Terms • OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE CLAIMS • An objective claim is a statement about a factual matter-one that can be proved true or false. is not a factual matter. it is an expression of belief.

– Five plus four equals ten. – Taipei 101 is the world's tallest building. – There are nine planets in our solar system. Objective Claims & Facts • An objective claim may be true or false. just because something is objective does not mean it is true. .

• Venus Williams is the greatest athlete of this decade. They do not make factual (provable) claims. • Touching a spider is scary. and therefore they are. neither true nor false • Trout tastes better than catfish. Subjective Claims & Opinions • subjective claims cannot be proved true or false by any generally accepted criteria. in a sense. .

• Act of referencing only those perspectives that support our pre- existing views. . Biases • Tendency to think that our side of an issue must be the correct side. while at the same time ignoring or dismissing opinions — no matter how valid — that threaten our world view.

you will be tempted to dismiss Leo Messi. if you are on a non-carb diet. you will be inclined to think that all carbs are bad for you. Biases • For example. even though scientists say some carbs are necessary for a balanced diet • For example. even though statistically he has scored 1 in every 20 goals for Barcelona in its 150 year . if you prefer Cristiano Ronaldo.

beauty. for different people or at different times. . or morality. etc.. Relativism • The belief that different things are true. • The theory that value judgments. as of truth. . have no universal validity but are valid only for the persons or groups holding them. right.

or support for the claim that something is of reasons.. evidence..e.Argument • An argument is a conclusion based upon evidence (i." . premises) • An argument is defined as ".

Premises: Each reason. 2. piece of evidence. . Conclusion: The conclusion of an argument is the point that the rest of the argument is supposed to show to be correct or true. and each bit of data used in an argument in support of the conclusion is called a premise.Components of Argument • There are 2 major components of arguments: 1.

Barriers to Critical Thinking • Culture • Close mindedness • Belief system/emotional blocks • Biases • Claims without evidences • Opinion without Facts • Weak Argument (will study more in the next chapter) .