You are on page 1of 31

THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF WELDING

BARODA BRANCH
202, Arckie View Complex, Tower-A,
Atmajyoti Ashram Road, Opp. WaterTank,
Vadodara – 390 023

WELD DEFECTS &
THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
 INTRODUCTION

 DISCONTINUITY – imperfection in weld.
 Welds are very rarely perfect and free from
imperfections due to:
– The vary nature of welding process.
– Associated localized application of heat &
their thermal cycles.
– Consequential effect on the materials being
weld.
Cont…
 AWS D1.1-95 defines Discontinuity as:
“An interruption of the typical structure
of a material, such as lack of homogeneity
in its mechanical or metallurgical or
physical characteristics.”
Cont……
 AWS D1.1-95 defines the defect as:
“ A discontinuity or discontinuities that by
nature or accumulated defect( e.g Total crack
length ) render a part or a product unable to
meet the minimum acceptance standards or
specifications. “
So, discontinuity is not a defect & defect
defines the reject ability of a part or a product.
Cont..
 Acceptance or rejection of flaws is based on
different factors and to mention a vital few
are:
– Stresses to which the parts will be subjected
during service.
– Type of material used.
– The temp. & pressure to which the parts will be
stressed.
– The environment.(Corrosive or Non corrosive)
– Consequences of failure.
– Safety.
– Cost & accessibility for repair etc.
• MODES OF FAILURE AFFECTED BY
THE DISCONTINUITY
 ELASTIC OR PLASTIC INSTEABILITY, OVER LOAD-
EXCESSIVE DEFORMATION, GENERAL CORROSION:
– These modes of failures related to design and the
discontinuity will reduce the thickness.

 STRESS CORROSION :
– It may be influenced by weld metal & HAZ,
microstructure & residual stresses, geometric stress
risers & planar discontinuities to the extent they intersect
the surface in the corrosive environment.
Cont…..
 BRITTLE UNSTABLE FAILURE:
– Cause greatest concern.
– Indicative of full thickness abrupt failure to normally
ductile materials at applied stresses which do not exceed
the cross section yield stress.
 FATIGUE- HIGH CYCLE, LOW CYCLE.
– 90% of all disruptive failure.
– Often precedes the onset of brittle failure.
– Discontinuities act as a stress riser thus enhance the
propagation of the crack.
• METHODS USED TO DETECT
DISCONTINUTIES.
 DESTRUCTIVEW  NON DESTRUCTIVE
METHOD: METHOD:
– Normally performed – Often employed to
to qualify a procedure, ensure the quality of
process consumables the weld which is to
or welder for a be put into service.
particular application.
– To verify the
conformance of
mechanical properties
of the weld.
• APPLICABLE INSPECTION METHODS Vs
DISCONTINUITIES.
Discontinuities RT UT PT MT VT ET
Porosity A O A O A O

Slag Inclusions A A NA O NA O

Incomplete Fusion O A NA O NA O
Inadequate joint
A A NA NA NA O
preparation
Under cut A O O O A O
Overlap NA O A A O O
Cracks 0 A A A A A
Laminations NA A A A A NA

RT- Radiographic test UT- Ultrasonic Test PT- Penetrant Test
MT- Magnetic Particle Test VT- Visual Test ET- Eddy current
Test
A- Applicable method NA- Not Acceptable
O- Marginal applicability depending upon other factors such as material
thickness, discontinuity, size, orientation & location
 DEFECTS THAT
COMMONLY OCCUR IN
WELDING.
• POROSITY
 It is a cavity type
discontinuity (void)
formed by gas
entrapment during
solidification.
 Types:
– Uniform porosity.
– Aligned porosity.
– Cluster porosity.
POROSITY
– Wormhole porosity.
Porosity
Cause Remedy
1) Less Mn & Si In Wire 1) Use High Mn & Si
2) Rusted / Unclean BM / Wire
Groove 2) Clean & warm the
3) Rusted wire BM
4) Inadequate Shielding 3) Replace the Wire
Gas 4) Check & Correct
Flow Rate

Porosity . .
• SPATTERS

SPATTERS
Spatters
Cause Remedy
1) Low Voltage 1) Increase Voltage
2) Inadequate Inductance 2) Increase Inductance
3) Rusted BM surface 3) Clean BM surface
4) Rusted Core wire 4) Replace By Rust
5) Quality Of Gas Free wire
5) Change Over To
Ar + Co2

Spatters
• ••
• LACK OF FUSION
 This term is
commonly used to
denote conditions
caused by a lack of
complete melting &
coalescence of some
portion of the metal
in a joint.
LACK OF FUSION
 LOF may occur
either between weld
beads or between
weld & base metal.
Lack Of Fusion
Cause Remedy
1) Inadequate Current 1) Use Right Current
2) Inadequate Voltage 2) Use Right Voltage
3) Wrong Polarity 3) Connect Ele. + Ve
4) Slow Travel Speed 4) Increase Travel
5) Excessive Oxide On speed
Joint 5) Clean Weld Joint

Lack Of Fusion
• UNDERCUT
 Undercut is a groove
melted into the base
metal adjacent to the
weld toe or root and UNDERCUT

unfilled by weld
metal.
Undercut
Cause Remedy
1) Excess Voltage 1) Reduce Voltage
2) Excess Current 2) Reduce Current
3) Improper Torch angle 3) Train & Qualify the
4) Excess Travel Speed Welder
4) Reduce Travel Speed

Under cut
• OVERLAP
 Uneven and
excessive welding
called overlap.
OVERLAP
Cause Remedy
1) Too Long Stick Out 1) Reduce Stick Out

2) Inadequate Voltage 2) Increase the
Voltage

Overlap
SLAG INCLUSION
 This term is used to describe the oxides or other
non metallic, solid materials that the entrapped in
weld metal or between the weld metal & base metal.
There are two type of slag inclusions:
– LINEAR SLAG INCLUSION: Continuous or broken
lines of slag situated parallel to the axis of weld.
– ISOLATED SLAG INCLUSION: (Scattered)
There are slag inclusions of irregular
shape distributed within the weld.
SLAG

Cause Remedy
1) Inadequate Cleaning 1) Clean each bead
2) Inadequate Current 2) Use Right Current
3) Wrong Torch angle 3) Train / Qualify welder
4) Improper bead 4) Train / Qualify
placement Welder

Slag
• CRACK
 Cracking is frequently caused by metallurgical related
phenomena and many theories exist to account for the
formation of various types of cracks. They can be
broadly placed into two general categories:
– COLD CRACKING: Low temp. cracking which
includes weld metal & HAZ hydrogen assisted
cracking and lamellar tearing.
– HOT CRACKING: High temp. cracking which
includes solidification cracking, liquidation
cracking, ductility dip cracking and reheat
cracking.
CRACK
Cause Remedy
1) Incorrect Wire 1) Use Right Wire
Chemistry 2) Increase wire Feed
2) Too Small Weld 3) Preheat Uniformly
Bead 4) Post heating or ISR
3) Improper Preheat
4) Excessive Restrain

crack
• LACK OF PENETRATION
 This term is used to
describe a condition
where failure of filler
metal and base metal
to fuse
integrally.Three
categories of LOP:
– LOP at root.
– LOP at interpass.
– LOP atsidewall.
LOP
Lack Of Penetration*
Cause Remedy
1) Too Narrow Groove 1) Widen The Groove
Angle 2) Increase Current
2) Too Low Welding current 3) Train / Qualify
3) Wrong Torch angle Welder
4) Puddle Roll In Front Of 4) Correct Torch
Arc Angle
5) Excess root face. 5) Reduce root face.
6) Oversize filler wire. 6) Reduce filler wire
size.

* Applicable to SSFPW

LOP
TUNGSTEN INCLUSION

Cause Remedy
1) Ineffective HF 1) Rectify HF Unit
2) Improper Starting of 2) Never Touch Weld
Arc. With Tungsten Rod.
3) Tungsten Tip Comes in 3) Train / Qualify
Contact With Weld welder.

Tungsten Inclusion
SUCK BACK*
Cause Remedy

1) Excess weaving in 1) Reduce weaving
root 2) Reduce Current
2) Excess Current 3) Increase root face
3) Inadequate root face 4) Train / Qualify Welder
4) Wrong Electrode
angle

* Applicable to SSFPW in 4G, 3G & 2G

Suck Back
BURN THROUGH*
Cause Remedy
1) Excess Current 1) Reduce the Current
2) Excess Root opening 2) Reduce root opening
3) Inadequate Root face 3) Increase root face
4) Improper weaving. 4) Train / Qualify
5) Too low travel speed. Welder.
5) increase travel
speed.

Burn trough *Applicable to root pass
CONVEX BEAD FINISH
Cause Remedy
1) Low Current 1) Increase Current
2) Low Voltage 2) Increase Voltage
3) Low Travel Speed 3) Increase Travel Speed
4) Low Inductance 4) Increase Inductance
5) Too Narrow Groove 5) Increase Groove
Width

Uneven bead finish