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THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF WELDING

BARODA BRANCH
202, Arckie View Complex, Tower-A,
Atmajyoti Ashram Road, Opp. WaterTank,
Vadodara – 390 023

WELD JOINT DESIGN AND
SYMBOLS
INTRODUCTION

Welding is the most commonly used method of fabrication of
structural works, pressure vessels etc. Welded joint is the best
solution for leak proof joints.

• The joint design identifies,
“The shape, dimension and configuration of the joint”.

• The weld joint geometry is,
“The shape and dimension of a joint in cross section prior to
welding”
Butt welds:

Fillet welds:

Spot/Seam welds:

Plug/Slot welds:

Edge welds:
Butt joints:

T joints:

Lap joints:

Corner joints: Closed Open
corner corner
The purposes of a weld preparation is to allow access for the
welding process, penetration and fusion through the area of the
joint and its faces.

The basic rule is this:
The more you take out, then the more you must put back in

This has major effects on economics and distortion control etc
The root face, root gap and angle of bevel values, the choice of
single, or double sided preparations, are dictated only by the
type of welding process, the position and accessibility of the
joint.
Angle of bevel
Root face

Included angle

Root radius Root gap

Root landing
Single bevel

Single V

Single J

Single U
Double bevel

Double V

Double J

Double U
A butt welded butt joint

A fillet welded butt joint

A compound welded butt joint
A fillet welded T joint

A butt welded T joint

A compound welded T joint
A fillet welded Lap joint

A spot welded Lap joint

A compound welded Lap joint
A fillet welded Closed Corner joint

A butt welded Closed Corner joint

A compound welded Closed Corner joint
An inside fillet welded Open Co
C rner joint

An outside fillet welded Open Corner joint

A double fillet welded Open Corner joint
Weld Face
Actual Throat Thickness
Weld Width
1.2.3.4. Weld Toes Design Throat Thickness

1 2
A

B 3 4
HAZ Fusion Boundary
Weld Root Fusion Zone
A + B = Excess Weld Metal
Vertical Leg Length

Weld face

Horizontal Leg Length
Excess weld metal
Design throat
Actual throat
“a” = Nominal throat thickness “s” = Effective throat thickness

a s
WELDING SYMBOLS

Welding symbol convey design requirements to the shop in a
concise manner. Welding symbol include the following
elements:
• Reference line (Required element)
• Arrow (Required element)
• Tail
• Basic weld symbol
• Dimension and other data
• Supplementary symbols
• Finish symbols
• Specification , process or other reference
REPRESENTATION OF WELDS
REFERANCE LINE & ARROW:

 The reference line always drawn horizontally.
 The lower side of reference line is termed the arrow side & upper side of
reference line termed as other side.
 When the arrow is shown with a break ,break arrows always points towards
the member of the joints that is to be prepared or shaped.
 Multiple reference line may also be used with basic weld symbols.

First backing joint
Second bevel
Third is flatting
TAIL
SPECIFICATION

 The tail of the welding symbol is used to indicate the
welding and cutting processes as well as the welding
specifications , procedures or supplementary information.
 Codes , Drawing notes , or any other applicable
documents pertaining to the welding may be specified.
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
• Supplementary symbols are used in connection
with with the weld symbol and can indicate extent
of welding ,weld appearance ,material included in
the preparation of the welded joint or indicate
welding which is performed in some place other
than in the shop
• THE TYPES OF SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS ARE:
• Weld all around
• Field weld
• Melt through
• Consumable insert (Square)
• Backing or spacer (Rectangular)
• WELD ALL AROUND SYMBOLS

• The symbol is used to show weld application made
completely around the joint specified

• FIELD WELDS

• Field welds are not made in shop
• The symbol known as field flag is either above or below,
and to a right angle to reference line at the junction of the
arrow
• MELT TROUGH SYMBOLS

• This symbol is used only when complete root penetration
plus visible root reinforcement is required in welds
• The symbol is placed on the side of reinforcement line
opposite to the weld symbols

• CONSUMABLE INSERT SYMBOLS

Consumable inserts are strips or rings of filler metal, added
to the weld joints,that completely fuse to the joining
members
The square symbol is specified by placing the symbol on
the opposite side of the groove weld symbols
• BACKING OR SPACER SYMBOL

• The joints with backing are specified by placing the backing symbol
on the side of the reference line opposite the groove weld symbol.
• Material and dimension of the backing are specified in the tail of the
symbol.


• GROOVE WITH SPACER
• The joint that require spacers are specified by modifying the groove
symbols to rectangle within it.
• The spacer is require to joints welded from both side and is generally
centered on the root face of the prepared members.
• Material & dimension of the spacer are shown in the tail of symbol.
• WELD SYMBOL DIMENSIONING

S L-P

• S=FILLET WELD SIZE
• L=FILLET WELD LENGTH
• P=PITCH (Center to Center Spacing)
TYPES OF SYMBOLS FOR
APPLICABLE WELD

SQUARE BUTT FILLET WELD

V GROOVE PLUG WELD

BEVEL GROOVE STUD WELD

U – GROOVE SPOT WELD

J – GROOVE SEAM WELD

FLARE – V GROOVE BACKING

FLARE BEVEL FLANGE EDGE
GROOVE
SCARE GROOVE FLANGE GROOVE
THANK YOU