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Learning Theories

Marvin F. Delfin, RN, BSN


Objectives:
After completing this chapter, the student
will be able to:
Identify and describe the general concepts
of learning and its theories.
Distinguish and critique the different
learning theories, its examples, advantages,
and setbacks.
Apply and analyze the different learning
theories using different active learning
strategies.
BEHAVIORISM
BEHAVIORISM

It is confined to observable
and measurable behavior.
Learning is defined by the
outward expression of new
behaviors and context-
independent.
Biological basis for learning.
Focuses on observable
behaviors.
BEHAVIORISM
CLASSICAL CLASSICAL
CONDITIONING CONDITIONING
(PAVLOV) (PAVLOV)

The response is made


A stimulus is first then
presented in order to reinforcement follows.
get a response. It is about
It is about reflexes. feedback/reinforcemen
t.
BEHAVIORISM IN THE CLASSROOM
Rewards and
Punishments
Responsibility for
student learning rests
squarely with the
teacher.
Lecture-Based and
Highly Structured
Examples of Teaching Methods
based on Behaviorism
Guided Practice
Lecture without discussion
Programmed learning and instructions
Repetition
Skill Exercise
CRITIQUES OF BEHAVIORISM
It does not account for processes
taking place in the mind that
cannot be observed.
Advocates for passive student
learning in a teacher-centric
environment.
One size fits all.
Knowledge itself is given and
absolute.
There is programmed instruction
and teacher-proofing.
COGNITIVI
SM
COGNITIVISM
Grew in response to
Behaviorism.
Knowledge is stored
cognitively as symbols.
Learning is the process of
connecting symbols in a
meaningful and memorable
way.
Studies focused on the mental
processes that facilitate
symbol connection.
COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORIES
MEANINGFUL VERBAL
DISCOVERY LEARNING (BRUNER) LEARNING (AUSUBEL)
Anybody can learn anything at any Advance Organizers:
age, provided it is stated in terms New material is presented in a
they can understand. systematic way and is
Powerful Concepts (Not Isolated connected to existing cognitive
Facts) structures in a meaningful way.
Transfer to many different situations. When learners have difficulty
Only possible through Discovery with new material, go back to
Learning. the concrete anchors (Advance
Confront the learner with problems Organizers).
and help them find solutions. Do not Provide a discovery approach
present sequenced materials. and they will learn.
COGNITIVISM IN THE
CLASSROOM

Inquiry-Oriented
Projects
Provide opportunities
for the testing of
hypotheses.
Curiosity is encouraged.
Stage Scaffholding
Examples of Teaching Methods
based on Cognitivism

Use of problem-solving
Reciprocal teaching
scaffolding
Like Behaviorism,
knowledge itself is
givenCRITIQUES
and absolute.
OF COGNITIVISM
Input Process
Output model is
mechanistic and
deterministic.
It does not account
enough for
individuality.
It has little
emphasis on
affective
characteristics.
SOCIAL LEARNING
THEORY
SOCIAL LEARNING
THEORY
Grew out of Cognitivism.
Learning takes place through observation
and sensorial experiences.
Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery.
Social Learning Theory is the basis of the
movement against violence in media and
video games.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
VYGOTSKY BANDURA
Zone of Proximal Development Is built on the importance of
Students best learn subjects observational learning,
just beyond their range of imitation and modeling.
existing experience with There is a continuous
assistance from the teacher or interaction among behaviors,
another classmate. cognitions and the
Assistance from others bridges environment.
the distance from what the The learner and the
students know to what they can environment are in a
know or do with assistance. reciprocal relationships.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
FOR A STUDENT TO
LEARN:
3 INTERNAL PROCESS
MUST OCCUR
1. Attention or
observation
2. Retention or processing
in memory
3. Motivation or having a
reason to replicate
anothers behavior
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
IN THE CLASSROOM
Collaborative Learning
and Group Work
Modeling Responses
and Expectations
There are opportunities
to observe experts in
action.
Examples of Teaching Methods
based on Social Learning Theory

Demonstration/ Return
Demonstration
Role Modeling
scaffolding
CRITIQUES OF SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

It does not take into account


individuality, context and experience
as mediating factors.
Suggests students learn best as
passive receivers of sensory stimuli,
as opposed to being active learners.
Emotions and motivation are not
considered important or connected to
learning.
WHATS THE DIFFERENCE?
ASSIGNMENT
DISCUSSION FOR NEXT
MEETING
TEAM LEARNING: Role Play
Instructions:
The class will form into 3 groups with equal
members.
Each group participant will play a scenario
regarding a learning theory.
As a team, the team leader will choose a
Learning Theory case scenario to role play.
The case scenario will be based from the learning
theories of Humanism, Constructivism and Brain-
Based Learning.
Each Team will have 5-8 minutes to role play.
At the end of each round, the members of other
group will provide some learning feedback to the
application of learning theory before moving onto
the group.
After all the presentation, the instructor will
supplement some learnings and summarization of
the activity.