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The Future of Disinfection in

the Food, Water & Waste


Water Industries
Content
History of Huwa-San
What is Huwa-San?
H2O2 and Colloidal Silver Background
Why Huwa-San is Very Effective?
How it Works?
Huwa-San Application in Water
Differences Between Huwa-San &
Other Disinfectants
Cost and Benefits
Summary
The Next Generation of
Water Disinfectant
Chlorine
1774
Chlorine Dioxide
1814
Hydrogen Peroxide 1818
Ozone 1840
Silver was used in early
Huwa-San
historic days but too slow 1980
acting
on bacteria

Hydrogen Peroxide was


developed in 1800 but too fast
History of Huwa-San
1979: Developped by Mr.. Heinz Hungerbach (Germany)
1990: Agreement Roam Chemie/Hungerbach Inc.
Roam Chemie marketing/sales in Belgium
1998: Mr. Heinz Hungerbach (77)

2001: Roam Chemie bought formula/process and

marketing/sales worldwide
2006: Belhasa bought formula/process/manufacturing and
marketing/sales for 30 countries- Joint Venture agreement
Locations
Roam
Chemie

Dubai
Al-Khoz)
(Industrial Area
?What is Huwa-San TR50
Hungerbach Water Sanitizer
Hungerbach Wasser Sanierungi
50% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
Disinfectant
320 ppm (0.0032%) colloidal/ionic
silver- Biocide
The rest (49.9960%) is demineralised
water
2-5 year shelf life (1.2% per year loss on
storage)
H2O2 & Colloidal Silver
H 2O 2
Background
is formed by our immune system and naturally in the
environment
H2O2 is used widely used in the food industry. It is the only
chemical approved to use directly on foods by the FDA.
However, H2O2 is not stable in storage and reacts very fast in
water/food
H2O2 does not provide any residual in water for post water
disinfection
H2O2 is EPA approved as a water disinfectant
LD 50 > 2000 mg/kg (Toxicity L Dose) European Commission CAS
No 7722-84-1

Colloidal/Ionic Silver is used from the early historic days until


today as a water disinfectant. Also used in the
medical/pharmaceutical as an antibiotic to kill germs- Best Germ
Fighter.
Silver is non-toxic to human. Colloid of silver was the only form
of silver that was not deposited under the skin.
Silver poses no toxic effects to humans (USEPA 2001, WHO
1993).
Source: Colloidal silver. Zane Baranowski CN. Healing wisdom
www.invie.com, www. colloidal-silver.com
Silver Background
Aristotle advised Alexander the Great to store water in silver
vessels to prevent waterborne diseases. Pioneers that crossed
America placed silver coins in their water barrels- Russell (1994).
Before refrigeration, milk used to be stored with coins of silver to
maintain freshness.
Silver was the primary antibiotic used before the advent of
pencillin in 1938
Modern ships still use silver for the same purpose- (Laubusch
1971).
In 1950s silver was used as a bactericide for water purifying
systems.
Samsung has recently released a line of washing machines, air
conditioners, air purifiers and refrigerators that use the Silver
Nano Health SystemTM technology (Samsung 2004).
NASA developed silver ionizer to purify drinking water in the
Apollo spacecraft (NASA 2004). Also used by the Russian
Airspace for water purification
Drinking water-purifying systems nowadays contain a silver ion-
exchange system, a silver tube which acts as a bactericide.
Silver in the Holly Books

Surate El-
Insan, Verse
14 and 20

Silver is also Psalm


mentioned in the 66:10
Bible where Isaiah 48:10
royalty &
Malachi 3:2,
Phoenicians
carried water in 3
Silver Use
Great potency is at 250-500 ppm and particle size should be
less than 0.001 microns. Large particles are less effective,
can remain in tissues and cause bluing of the skin.

Silver retention rate is 0-10% (US-EPA 440/5-80-071)

Studies on Silver Toxicity showed that it is very safe.


Higher level of silver, up to 0.1 mg/liter (a concentration
that gives a total dose over 70 years of half the human
NOAEL of 10 g), could be tolerated without the risk to
health (WHO 1996- WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/14).

Silver is EPA approved as a water disinfectant. EU Drinking


Water Standard has removed any upper limit for silver in
drinking water, following the WHO s Guidelines stating It
is unnecessary to recommend any health-based guideline
for silver as it is not hazardous to human health.
Silver Use in Food
Max Allowed Silver Content
in Drinking Water

20
pp
Why Huwa-San is Very
H O with colloidal
2 2
Effective
?silver produces synergy action
30 ppm of H2O2 alone achieves 90% reduction- 1 log reduction
30 ppb of Ionic Silver achieves 99.0% reduction- 2 log
reduction
Combined effect (30 ppm H2O2 & 30 ppb silver) achieves
99.999%- 5 Log Reduction- Synergy Effect*
Silver: Stabilizes H2O2 (Ag++ keeps O--)
Silver: Deactivate enzymes (microbial defense
system)
H2O2: Formation of highly reactive free
Oxygen & Hydroxyl Radicals,
Ag2+ Ag
attack Biological 3+
e -
e -

Targets e -
e -

O 2 HO. 2 2 . H2O
O2 HO
OH-
catalase FENTON Source: Pedahzur et al., 1995*
Disinfectant Potency
Oxida Oxidation
nt Potential
Huwa-San*
4.0
Fluorine
3.0
Hydroxyl Peroxide
2.8
Ozone
2.1
Hydrogen Peroxide
1.8
Potassium
Permanganate
Based 1.7synergy*
on the double and .lenntech.com Source: www
Huwa-San
How does it work

1. The Silver Effect


Silver emits
electrostatic

The silver weakens


the outer defenses
(enzymes) of the
micro-organism

Ag

Hydrogen peroxide stabilised around silver


Huwa-San How Does it w
2. The hydrogen peroxide effe

Hydrogen peroxide pull away and


head toward micro-organism

Increase in kinetic energy due to


presence of micro-organism

Ag
Huwa-San the combined e

The presence of the


Silver has weakened
outer defense Micro-organism oxidised
mechanism. This in DNA destroyed
combination with
the increased energy
of the hydrogen
peroxide leads to:
Huwa-San The residua
After the reaction O2 H2O
with the micro-
organism we are left
with: They disappear
into the
environment

They loose their kinetic


energy
and return to await their next
Ag target
Log Reduction H2O2 vs
Huwa-San
Staph aureaus ATCC 6538 H2Salmonella
O2 typhirum ATCC 13311
H2O2 Vs Huwa-San
H2O2 Vs Huwa-San Huwa-
San

Source: Prof. Dr. Dirk Vanden Berghe Univ of


Sanitizer/Disinfection/Steril
ization
(0.5-1% Huwa-San, 10 minutes, @ 25 C)
MICROBES Decimal Elimination%
Reduction
Bacteria LR 5 99.999
(E. coli, S. aureaus)

Spores LR 3 99.9
C. sporogenes, B.)
(cereus

Fungus LR 4 99.99
Saccharomyces,)
(Penicillum

Viruses LR 3
Naked &) L: Log 99.9
(encapsulated R: Reduction (HWS in 1-3 hrs 1-3%)
Microbes Strain Concentration Location Method

Non- Spores

Microorganis Spores

ms Yeast/Moulds

Tested
Viruses

Protozoa
Fields of Application

Public Health care


Poultry/Food/Meat packing
Pharmaceutical
Beverage and Dairy
Dental
Cosmetic and Hospital
Surfaces (sauna, pools)
Swimming pool
Irrigation and
Drinking water Agriculture
Waste water Hotels
Cooling Tower Food service
Chlorine Byproducts &
Effects
Trihalomethanes Causes cancer in liver, kidney,
(THMs)- Max 80 ppb and other

Bromate
Causes various types of cancer
Max 10 ppb

Chlorite Affects nervous system for


Max 1 ppm infant

Haloacetic Acids
(HAA5)- Max 60 ppb Increases risk of cancer

Source: US
HUWA SAN
ONE PRODUCT VARIOUS
APPLICATIONS
Contact Time
Water
DosageWater
Rate
Time of
Application
Drinking Water ppm 10-35 minutes 10-20
Drinking Water

Swimming Pool ppm 70-100

Cooling Towers/ A/C 10 minutes


Ducts 200 -500 ppm
Storage Tank/Pipes
Stage1&3:30-50 ppm
Waste Water Stage2: 10-30 ppm minutes 10-20
Sludge: 300 ppm
Drinking water
regulation
European & Australian regulations

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2): max. 10-17 mg/l


Silver (Ag) max. 10 g/l

Huwa-San TR-50 H2O2 Ag


1 L 580 g 0.36 g
1 kg (d=1,196) 485 g 0.30 g
20 mg 9.7 mg 6 g
30 mg 14.5 mg 9 g

Dosage of 20-30 ppm (mg/l): 9.7-14.5 mg H2O2/l and 6-


9 g Ag/l
Tests: water disinfection
Huwa-San TR-50 30 ppm
% Elimination

15 min 30 min 60 min


Bacteria

Escherichia coli 74 82 100


Staphylococcus aureus 67 100 100
Proteus mirabilis 67 95 100
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 69 90 100

Fungus

Candica albicans 33 56 95
Biofilm/Legionella
1. Clean water distribution system
2. Attachment of bacteria
3. Growth and division of bacteria
4. Expolymer production, Biofilm formation & bacteria attachment
Biofilm/Legionella

5. Attachment of other organisms to biofilm )days - months(

Disappears into biofilm


Disappears into biofilm
Into biofilm
Water Microbiology
5.
and
Legionella
live in it
penetrate
multiplying
protozoa
until protozoa
bursts

An amoeba (red) pulling a


Legionella bacterium (green)
into the amoeba cell.
HUWA SAN
ONE PRODUCT VARIOUS
APPLICATIONS
General Food Processing
Areas of Dosage Contact
Application rate Time

Hand Sanitizer 2-5% min 0.1-3

Surfaces:
Walls/Floors, 0.5-5% min 1-5
Equipments, Tanks
Vehicles & CIP
Vegetables & Fruits ppm 500-1000 min 3-10

Air/Environment ppm 2-3% min 3-10

Packaging & ppm 200-500 min No 0.5-1


Bottles @35 C need to rinse
Tests: surface
disinfection
Steel/Plastic Huwa-San TR-50
Bacteria 0,20% 0,50% 1,0%
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5,0 6,2 6,3
Escherichia coli 5,6 5,6 5,7
Staphylococcus aereus 5,8 5,9 6,1
Enterococcus faecium 4,8 5,0 5,3
Mycobacterium smegmatis 4,2 4,8 5,4

Spores
Bacillus subtilus 4,4 4,6 4,7
Bacillus cereus 2,9 3,0 3,6
Clostridium sporogenes 2,7 2,8 3,1

Fungi
Absidia corymbifera 4,3 4,6 4,6
Cladosporium cladosporioides 4,2 4,3 4,6
Candica albicans 4,7 4,7 4,8
Penicillium verrucosum 3,6 4,2 4,3
Food Service
Delivery Vehicles: 1-3%
Hands, floor, table, equipment, sinks
etc: 1-3%
Salads-vegetables: 500 ppm
Fruits: 500 PPM
Meats (chicken, red meat and fish,
and any raw products): 200 PPM
Process water: 75 ppm
Dairy industry, Slaughter
House & Meat Processing
Water: Drinking and processing water-

Husbandry area: Floors and equipment-


Milking area: Cow, equipment, pipes and tanks,-
containers and delivery trucks

Slaughter: Floor, walls, and equipment-


Processing: meat, bones, organs, skin, blood-

Soaking: Meat & processed meat-


Process Area: hands, floor, table and processing-
equipment, and packaging

Storage area: Rooms, floors and transport vehicles-


Dairy industry, Slaughter
House & Meat Processing
Water: Drinking and processing water-

Husbandry area: Floors and equipment-


Milking area: Cow, equipment, pipes and tanks,-
containers and delivery trucks

Slaughter: Floor, walls, and equipment-


Processing: meat, bones, organs, skin, blood-

Soaking: Meat & processed meat-


Process Area: hands, floor, table and processing-
equipment, and packaging

Storage area: Rooms, floors and transport vehicles-


HUWA SAN
ONE PRODUCT VARIOUS
APPLICATIONS
Poultry/Chicken
Contact Time Dosage Rate Time of
Application
Drinking Water ppm 20-35 Hour 1
Feed System 0.5-1% minutes 5-20

Eggs Disinfection 200-500 ppm 5-20 minutes


Bird Houses- 1-3% 2 minutes
Envir/hachery
Stage 1: De-
Chicken Meat feathering minutes 0.1-5
Processing 2%
: Stage 2
Dipping/Spray
1%
Aquaculture
Shrimps farm water: 10-30 PPM-
Fish farm water: 10-60 PPM-
Extend the shelf life of fish/shrimp:-
200-400 PPM
Fish processing equipment--
Concentration: 1-3%
Ice: Disinfect as it : 100-200 PPM-
Agriculture
Greenhouse: Air disinfection: 1-3%-
Plant disinfection: Fungus, bacteria &-
viruses: 1%
Soil disinfection: Fungus and other-
microbes: 3-5%
Post harvest disinfection: Vegetables-
wash, soaking, and drying to extend
the shelf life: 0.5-3%
Irrigation drip net pipe: Deposit-
cleaning: 100 PPM
Seedling
Bottled Water Process Flow
Huwa-San Huwa-San
)10 ppm( )10 ppm(
Anti-Scaling
Mineral
Softner Injection
Disinfection
DS & Bromide
of Filters
Raw Water Removal Storage
Tank Sand Carbon RO Unit De-min
Filter Filter Water Micron
Filter
Huwa-San 60 PPM @ 45 C
No
Ozone
Pre- Bottle Bottle Final Mix or Bromate
Bottle Tank/ UV
Rinse Wash/Clean Disinfect Rinse Injection
Fill
Dripping Huwa-San
Advantages Advantages )10 ppm(
No Ozone unit is needed, no need to cool the Safe to use
water, no algae growth in tank High Micro kill + Residual
No bacteria and pathogen on micron filter Simple to store & dose
No need to rinse after disinfection No need to change filters/Memb.
Well Water/House/Factory/Swimming Pool Water Disinfection

Water Tank
10-20 min Cyclone
Flow Meter
Filter
40-80 Indication
Sand
Tanker ppm
Home
Factory Dosing Pump
Timer
Huwa-San
Tank

Swimming Pool Well or


Municipality
Water
Cooling Tower Water Disinfection

Vacuum Fan

Warm Water Sprinkling

Heat In
Exchang
Air Air Out
er
Water 500
ppm
Dosing Pump
Flow
Cooling water Meter
return Indication
Advantages
Huwa-San
No deposit and Algae Tank
Heat transfer efficiency
Maintenance )clean 1 per month(
No Biofilm, and stable at high temp
m3/day 450,000 Figure 1. Huwa-San use to Control Odor in Waste Water Treatment Plant
18,750 m3/hr
PPM 30
m3/hr 781
Raw m3/hr 3125
tanks 24
Waste Pump tanks 6 m3/hr 2,343
Primary tanks 8 m3/hr 1,340
Tank AirationT m3/hr 2,343
Settling tanks 14 m3/hr 1,041
anks Secondary
Tanks tanks 8
PPM 50 Settling Biological tanks 18
Air Tanks Filters Third
Settling Send
137 m3/hr @ 5% solids Air Tanks Filters

Chlorination
Buffer Tank
Distribution

Anaerobic Methane
Advantages Advantages
Digester Tank )70%( CO2 m3/hr 18,610
)30%( gas 2
m3/hr
No Smell- Water easily
PPMsold
350for Golf/Irrigation Industrial Safety-Toxicity/No Cl Odor
No Bacteria and pathogens- Safe water Conso. Tank
High
m /hrMicro
@ 3.5%kill-
solidsLegionella/Shegella
3
134
PPM 50
PPM
Sludge no odor, and dry350
faster-Water
No problems Simple to store & dose- Liquid
Centrifuge 104 m /hr 3

Environmentally- Bio-products friendly Adds Oxygen- BOD/COD, oxidant


Conveyor

34 m3/hr dry solids


Spray System 0.1%
Open Air drying
After

DO

Before
C
C

ppm 600 ppm 350


Sewage Water Treatment
Location Test 0 ppm 50 ppm
Before First
Set Tank BOD 159 80
TSS 292 44
NH3 40 40
H2S 2 0.5
DO 0.5 3
Before Second
Set Tank BOD 1200 84
(Sludge Re-
Injected) TSS 3230 104
NH3 70 50
H2S 7 0.1>
DO 0.7 3
Effect of Huwa-San on
Micro Load
Location Test Sample 1 Sample 2

Before Primary settling Tank Control 2.7x10^6

After Primary Settling Tank Control 1.9X10^6

After Primary Settling Tank ppm 50 3.5x10^5


Before Secondary Settling
Tank Control 2.3x10^6 1.1x10^6
Before Secondary Settling
Tank ppm 50 5.5x10^5 6.7x10^5
Before Secondary Settling
Tank ppm 100 4.5x10^5 4.8x10^5

After Secondary Settling Tank control 1.4x10^5


Lake Water Micro Test

Test TDS, mg/l DO, mg/l NH3, mg/l E.coli F. coliform


cfu/100ml cfu/100ml

Control 982 17.6 15.6 TNTC TNTC

50 PPM 948 5.07 18.6 435.2 TNTC

100 PPM 941 >23 21.3 NIL NIL


Well Water Micro Test

Test Huwa-San Date E. coli, F. Coliform,


residual cfu/100m cfu/100ml
l
Control N/A 7/6/2007 150 TNTC

After 5 hours 150 ppm 7/6/2007 NIL NIL

After 5 days 60 ppm 12/6/2007 NIL NIL

After 11 days 20 ppm 18/6/2007 NIL NIL


Pilot Scale Set-up
Summary
Dose 50 ppm of Huwa-san before the
primary settling tank.
Reduce the BOD by 50 %
Reduce suspended solids by 85 %
Reduce H2S by 75%
Increased DO by 600%
No much change on the NH3 reduction
using one injection and some reduction if
second injection
Pilot scale DEWA- Dubai
HDPE Tank 5000 liters.
Pumping system
Injection Huwa-San 20-30 ppm
Samples collection (Chemical &
Microbiological) after 1, 6, 24hrs
and 5 days from adding Huwa-San.
Monitoring Huwa-San residual
level
Result analysis

NB) the trial has been repeated 4


times:
- 2 with chlorinated water
- 2 without chlorinated water
Test Results of Non Chlorinated Water
Treated with Huwa-San @20-30 ppm

Huwa-San week 3 Huwa-San Week 4


Parameter Unit Specs Control ( Sep 1-5) (Sep 8-12 )

Temp C 44.5 44 44.3

pH 14 - 0 6.5 - 8.5 7.87 7.46 8.1

TDS ppm 1000 154 151 152

H2O2 ppm 5 4> 10 0.5 >

Conductivity S/cm - 294 284 273

Turbidity NTU 5 0.18 0.14 0.1 >

Chlorine mg/L 0.5 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 >

Ag mg/L 0.1 0.002 > 0.004 0.005 >

THMs mg/L 0.1 0.005 > 0.005 > 0.005 >

Bromate Ppb 1 6> 6> 6>

Bromide mg/L ppb 80 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 >

Taste - - no no no

Smell - - no no no
Huwa-San Stability in
Water
Huwa-San Residual with Chlorinated Water
(Medium Circulation of Water at 35 C

25
22
20
18 18
ppm

16
15 14 14 Week 1
12 12
10 10 10 Week 2
9
8 8
6 6 6 6
5 5 5
4 4

ay
y

y
ay

ay
da

da

sd
nd

sd
on

es

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Su

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Tu
M

Th
ed
W

Day
Pictures From Bostwana
Disinfectants
Haloge Alcoho Pheno Alkylati Oxidisi Other
BioSaf
n l& le ng ng H2O2 s eAcids
by
Dyes Amphyl Formaldehy Huwa-
Chlorin and mix
de San
e& Ethanol , Lysol of
Ethylene
Iodine e Oxide
chemical
s
Micro Poor Good Excellent Good Excelle
Kill Medium + nt
Post Kill Medium Poor Good Poor Poor V.
Good
Stability Medium Poor Mediu Poor Poor V.
m Good
Taste/odo Poor Poor Poor Poor Excelle Excelle
r nt nt
By- Poor Mediu Poor Poor Excelle Excelle
products m nt nt
Huwa-San Vs Other Water
Disinfectants
UV O3 Cl2 ClO2 H2O2 Huwa
san
Micro Kill Poor V Good V. Good Good Excellen
Good t
Post Kill None Poor Mediu Good Poor V. Good
m
Stability None Poor Mediu Medium Poor V. Good
m
Taste/odor Excelle Excelle Poor Poor Good Excellen
nt nt t
By- N/A Excelle Poor Poor Excellen Excellen
products nt t t
Hazards N/A Mediu High High Low Low
m
Huwa-San vs Chlorine
Huwa-San removes and destroys biofilm Chlorine
cannot
Huwa-San kills cryptosporidium and its Ocysts -
Chlorine cannot
Huwa-San breaks down to water and oxygen- Chlorine
forms harmful by-products.
Huwa-San does not have odour and taste Chlorine
does
Huwa-San is safer and easier to use- Chlorine is not
Huwa-San is not affected with pH changes- Chlorine is
affected
You can drink water containing disinfection levels of
200 ppm Huwa-San level - Chlorine you cannot
Huwa-San is stable at high temperature and even
becomes more effective - chlorine is not - evaporates at
35 C and is less effective with higher temperatures
Product Pictures &
Concentrations Tone 1
50% H2O2 25% H2O2 Tote

12% H2O2 3% H2O2


kg Pail 25

kg 10

kg 3

kg Bottle 1

ml 100
Spray
Measuring & Monitoring
Titration with potassium
Measuring instruments
permanganate

PLC Automation and


record keepin

Spectrophotometer
photometric measurement
range: 0 - 150 ppm
accuracy: 1 ppm

Test strips
range: 0 -200 ppm
accuracy: 10 ppm (indicative)
Products Accessories

Timer dosing Continuously


Mixing proportion Full pH & H2O2
Pump controlled dosing
dosing Pump control
Pump

Pressure Spray Small Volume Hand Dispensers Environment Fogging


Surface Disinfection Surface Spray
Huwa-San
Certifications &

Approvals
EUROPE CE Certification Medical Devices
Belgium - Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture
- Ministry of Health & Agriculture Disinfection for Avian
Flu
Germany Ministry of Health
Australia - Ministry of Health
Turkey - Ministry of Health
Hungary - Ministry of Health
USA- EPA and FDA (stabilized H2O2)
UK DEFRA (Dept for Environment Food & Rural Affairs
UK DB Ecosystems LTD
UK- DWI (Dept for Water Inspectorate, London)
Scotland Drinking Water Quality Unit (2004)
Jordan Food & Drug Administration, Jordan
Egypt - Ministry of Health
Abu Dhabi Municipality, Dept Of Municipality
Abu Dhabi General Public Health
Dubai Dubai Municipality
Cost is the Buzz Word

Cost efficiency of the chemical


Efficiency/volume used (swimming pool, results show
volume is needed for Huwa-san vs chlorine, to reach 2

It is not cost/kg
ppm dose 10x more)
Benefits of each chemical (biofilm/legionella/

Risk assessment alone: It is


pseudemonas, by-products, odor/taste, etc .)

Quality, Cl2 leaks,Value,


Water born outbreak risks are reduced- Public Health

Safety (overdosing, ClO2)- Public Safety
Breaks down THMs and many other byproducts
Economic Efficiency, and

Impact
Cost savings (i.e. better quality, better yield/weight, more
Benefits

business, etc). For poultry you may pay 1 fils extra but
you get much more benefits (23 g extra/chicken, less cost
on antibiotic, less mortality)
No rinse is needed, etc..
Trade with other countries
Summary
Is the best chemical available for disinfection in the
water food industry (no odor, no taste, and no post
rinse)
Combine advantages not obtainable within any other
single form of chemical
Effective: Very powerful against all microbes (Spores,
virus, fungi and bacteria i.e. E. coli and Legionella)
Stable: Provides residual in water for post
contamination
Efficient: Depo storage- activate as needed- Cost
effective
Easy to handle and store
Eco-friendly: Non toxic byproducts- O2 prevent
anaerobic bacteria/sulfide production, destroys chlorine
carcinogenic byproducts
Huwa-San Health and
Safety
50% hydrogen peroxide is corrosive
Reacts with metal fines
Whitens skin and causes irritation
Causes serious problems if it gets in your eye
Wear gloves, goggles, and overalls at all
times when handling chemical
Read MSDS sheet and make sure you are
aware of all the hazards
No MSDS sheet or no appropriate protective
clothing No start
Treat chemicals with respect