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ELEC 3105 BUILDING SERVICES

PLUMBING SERVICES

2008 © Prepared by: K. K. Lam 1

Plumbing Services
1. Source of Water
2. Types of Water Supply System
3. System Components
4. System Design and Calculation
5. Hot Water Supply System
6. References

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1. Source of Water
1.1 Fresh Water Supply Network in Hong Kong
Impounding Service
Reservoir Reservoir

Water Primary
Treatment Service
Plant Reservoir
Water Pumping
Gathering Station
Grounds

Customers
Pumping
Station
Service
Reservoir

Raw Water from
Guangdong

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Customers

374 Mm3 Tai Tam Tuk Reservoir 6.299 Mm3 Tai Tam Byewash Reservoir 0. Source of Water 1.124 Mm3 TOTAL CAPACITY 586.729 Mm3 Tai Tam Intermediate Reservoir 0.080 Mm3 Plover Cove Reservoir 229.1 Fresh Water Supply Network in Hong Kong • Impounding Reservoir Total 17 numbers of impounding reservoir in various locations of Kowloon.279 Mm3 Tai Tam Upper Reservoir 1.773 Mm3 Kowloon Reception Reservoir 0.686 Mm3 Shek Lei Pui Reservoir 0.233 Mm3 Kowloon Reservoir 1.490 Mm3 High Island Reservoir 281.121 Mm3 Pok Fu Lam Reservoir 0.490 Mm3 Tai Lam Chung Reservoir 20. Name Max.578 Mm3 Shek Pik Reservoir 24. Capacity Name Max.047 Mm3 Shing Mun Reservoir 13.050 Mm3 4 .486 Mm3 Kowloon Byewash Reservoir 0. 1. Hong Kong and New Territories. Capacity Aberdeen Lower Reservoir 0.800 Mm3 Aberdeen Upper Reservoir 0.461 Mm3 Lower Shing Mun Reservoir 4.

Allocated in elevation to suit customer in different levels. • Service Reservoir Provide buffer of water supply as well as sufficient water supply pressure to customers. 1. Source of Water 1. 5 .1 Fresh Water Supply Network in Hong Kong • Water Treatment Plant Filtration and chemical treatment of raw water from impounding reservoir to water quality complies with chemically and bacteriologically to the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).

2 Flushing Water (Sea Water) Supply Network in Hong Kong Service Reservoir Non Return Customers Valve Customers Sea Wall Customers Pumping Station Chlorine Screening Disinfection SEA 6 . Source of Water 1. 1.

• Service Reservoir Minimize pressure fluctuation of the water supply mains. Source of Water 1. 7 . 1.2 Flushing Water (Sea Water) Supply Network in Hong Kong • Water Treatment Plant Seawater is not treated to the same standard as fresh water but its standard still has to comply with the guidelines laid down by the Water Supplies Department to prevent objectionable characteristics.

H (m) main pressure. 2. Water • Water pressure (P) is a time varying Meter function: m P(t) = Pm+p(t) Pm is Mean Water Pressure Supply Main p(t) is simultaneous pressure fluctuation that depends on water demand. 8 . • Height difference (H) of the top most Lot Height draw-off point will be limited by the supply Boundary Difference. • Only applicable in fresh water supply in Hong Kong.1 Direct Supply Draw-off Point • Water supply from supply main to draw- off point directly. Types of Water Supply System 2.

1 Direct Supply • Water flow. Types of Water Supply System 2. (m3/s) P V2 • Bernoulli Equation   H  Constant ρg 2g P is water pressure (Pa)  is density of water (kg/m3) g is gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2) V is velocity of water (m/s) = Q / A A is cross sectional area of pipe (m2). H is height difference (m) • The supply pressure P is a function of water flow Q and height difference H. 9 . Q(t) = Qm + q(t) Qm is the Mean Water Flow Rate (m3/s) q(t) is the simultaneous water flow fluctuation that depend on water demand. 2.

Types of Water Supply System Draw-off 2.1 Direct Supply Point • Example P2 The mean water pressure in the supply main is 30m head at mean water flow of Lot Height 15L/s. Boundary Difference. Supply Main 10 . Water Meter Minimum supply pressure at draw-off m point is 10m head. Po Determine maximum height difference of P1 the topmost draw-off point. H. 2. H (m) Diameter of supply main is 100mm.

The topmost draw-off point should not be higher than 20m above the supply main. P2=10m Recall Bernoulli Equation 2 2 Vo V2 Po   0(Datum)  P2  H 2g 2g 30 + 0 + 0 = 10 + 0 + H H = 20m [i.] Now.1 Direct Supply • Solution Assuming pipe friction and velocity head (V2/2g) in distribution pipe work is negligible. Types of Water Supply System 2. what will be the supply pressure at topmost draw-off point. 2. it is known that a new building in the downstream with mean water demand of 20L/s. 11 . Po = 30m = P1.e.

1 Direct Supply • Solution Diameter of supply main. Qo = 15L/s = 0.015 Vo  o   1.007854 Q’o = Qm + 20L/s = 15 + 20 = 35L/s = 0.46m/s A 0. 2.91m/s A 0.1)2 A   0.007854 12 . πD2 π(0. D = 0.015m3/s Q 0. Types of Water Supply System 2.007854m 2 4 4 Po = 30m.035 V'o  o   4.1m Cross sectional area of supply main.035m3/s Q' 0.

REPEAT THE CALCULATION FOR SUPPLY MAIN DIAMETER.1 Direct Supply • Solution Water pressure in supply main at V’o.e. Types of Water Supply System 2.2m Water pressure at topmost draw-off point become 9. P’o 2 2 V V' Po  o  0(Datum)  P'o  o  0(Datum) 2g 2g (1. 8% reduction from 10m head) Size of water main properly sized can minimize the pressure fluctuation due to change of water demand.2m (i. D=50MM 13 .46)2 30   0  P'o  0 2g 2g P’o = 29.91)2 (4. 2.

H (m) Draw-off Point Lot Boundary Water Meter Upfeed Pump m Sump Supply Main Tank 14 . Types of Water Supply System 2. 2.2 Indirect Supply Elevated Storage a) Gravity Supply System Tank Height Difference.

2. Types of Water Supply System 2.2 Indirect Supply a) Gravity Supply System • Water from supply main feed into sump tank and deliver to elevated storage tank via upfeed pump. • Sufficient height difference (H) shall be maintained for topmost draw- off point. • Water supply to draw-off point by gravity. • Pressure fluctuation at draw-off point is negligible if H >> p(t). 15 .

2.2 Indirect Supply b) Pumped Supply System • Direct connect water pump to supply main will cause pressure surge in the water supply network and is not permitted in Hong Kong water supply system. • Sump tank served the purpose of positive air break to the water supply main and for pump suction connection. 16 . Types of Water Supply System 2. • Types of pumped supply system: i) Constant Speed Pump System ii) Variable Speed Pump System iii) Pneumatic Booster Constant Speed Pump System • Selection of type of pumped supply system will depends on the pattern of water demand.

2 b) Pumped Supply System i) Constant Speed Pump System Draw-off Point Control Lot Valve Boundary P Pressure Sensor Water Bypass Meter Booster Pump m Sump Supply Main Tank 17 . 2. Types of Water Supply System 2.

e. Types of Water Supply System 2. [i. • Control valve acts as the actuating device and pressure sensor acts as the transducer that serve as the control equipment. 18 . • Water bypass back to the water tank waste energy on recirculation of water. Qm >> q(t)] • Bypass pipe is used to maintain constant supply pressure through regulating the amount of water feed back to sump tank. 2.2 b) Pumped Supply System i) Constant Speed Pump System • Suitable for water demand (Q) has insignificant time varying function.

2 b) Pumped Supply System ii) Variable Speed Pump System Draw-off Point Control Lot Valve Boundary P P Pressure Sensor Water Bypass Meter Frequency V Inverter m Booster Pump Sump Supply Main Tank 19 . Types of Water Supply System 2. 2.

2. 20 . Types of Water Supply System 2. • Variable speed drive (Frequency Inverter) is used to regulate the pump speed thus maintain constant water supply pressure. • Bypass pipe may require if minimum water demand is less than the minimum water flow of pump operate at minimum speed thus maintains constant supply pressure at extremely low demand. • Pressure sensor is used to monitor the system water pressure.2 b) Pumped Supply System ii) Variable Speed Pump System • Suitable for water demand (Q) has gradual time varying function q(t). • Minimize or eliminate the energy wastage on water bypass back to sump tank.

2.2 b) Pumped Supply System iii) Pneumatic Booster Constant Speed Pump System Draw-off Point Pressure Lot Sensors Boundary P Pneumatic P Tank Water Meter m Booster Pump Sump Supply Main Tank 21 . Types of Water Supply System 2.

Qm  q(t)] and exists randomly.e. 22 . • Pneumatic tank serve the purpose as the buffer to cater for extremely low water demand.2 b) Pumped Supply System iii) Pneumatic Booster Constant Speed Pump System • Suitable for water demand (Q) has significant time varying function [i. • There will be cut-in (Pl) and cut-out (Pu) pressures to determine the pump operation and pressure range of water supply. • Pump is operated periodically and its frequency of operation depends on the capacity of pneumatic tank and pump capacity. Types of Water Supply System 2. 2.

Pneumatic Pi Pl Pu Tank Cut-in Air Initial Air Effective Volume. Pressure. Vi Volume. Pressure. Vu Initial Cut-in Cut-out Pressure. V Volume of Initial Charge Up Water. Vl Volume of Water. Vi Charge Up Charge Up Charge Up Air Water Water Initial Stage Operation Stage 23 . Types of Water Supply System 2. 2.2 b) Pumped Supply System iii) Pneumatic Booster Constant Speed Pump System • Operating Principle of Pneumatic Tank Cut-out Air Volume.

2 b) Pumped Supply System iii) Pneumatic Booster Constant Speed Pump System • Operating Principle of Pneumatic Tank Initial Stage Equation of State PV=mRT and assume temperature change is negligible where R is Universal Gas Constant Pi Vi  Pl Vl Vi  ΔVi  Vl  Vl  Vi  ΔVi  Pi  ΔVi  Vi  1  …………. 2. (b)  Pu  24 . Types of Water Supply System 2. (a)  Pl  Operation Stage Similarly  P ΔV   Vi  ΔVi    1 l  ………….

2. Types of Water Supply System 2. (c) ΔV  V i   Pl Pu where.2 b) Pumped Supply System iii) Pneumatic Booster Constant Speed Pump System • Operating Principle of Pneumatic Tank Substitute Equation (a) into Equation (b) gives   P   P ΔV   Vi  Vi  1 i     1 l    Pl    Pu  Pi ΔP …………. ΔP  Pu  Pl Remark: All pressures are ABSOLUTE PRESSURE ABSOLUTE PRESSURE = GAUGE PRESSURE + ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 25 .

5 bar/5m head/50kPa below the system cut-in pressure. 26 .2 b) Pumped Supply System iii) Pneumatic Booster Constant Speed Pump System • V is the effective volume of the pneumatic tank that the amount of water can utilize per cycle when tank charged water to Cut-out Pressure and discharged to Cut-in Pressure. water feed into the pneumatic tank is separated by a diaphragmatic balloon that without direct contact with air because air will dissolve into water under pressure and air loss will be resulted after cyclic operation of water. Pi = Pl – 0. Types of Water Supply System 2.e. 2. • In reality. • Initial Pressure Pi is normally set at 0. [i. • ∆V is the EFFECTIVE VOLUME of pneumatic tank operating in pressure ranges between Pl and Pu.5bar] • Initial charge up water ensures only water escape out from pneumatic tank when water supply reach cut-in pressure.

Vi = 500L • Solution Initial pressure.0 – 0. Types of Water Supply System 2. Patm = 1 bar Cut-in pressure.5 bar Pneumatic tank volume.2 b) Pumped Supply System iii) Pneumatic Booster Constant Speed Pump System • Example: Atmospheric pressure. P ΔP 1. Pu = 3. Pi = Pl – 0.5 bar Effective volume. 2. Pl = 2.5  1 27 .5  2.0  1 3.0 ΔV  Vi  i   500    139L Pl Pu 2.5  1 3.0 bar Cut-out pressure.5bar = 2.5 = 1.

5 Effective Volume. Pi 1.5 2. Pl 1. V 178 104 139 167 95 129 119 [Figures colored in RED is the base for comparison] 28 .0 3.5 4.0 1.5 4.5 1.5 3. Types of Water Supply System 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.0 Cut-out Pressure.2 b) Pumped Supply System iii) Pneumatic Booster Constant Speed Pump System • The following table summarize the effective volume of a 500L pneumatic tank in various operating pressure range for comparison: Tank Volume.0 2. Vi 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 Cut-in Pressure.0 3.5 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.0 4.5 Initial Pressure. Pu 3.5 2. 2.

System Components 3. 3. SILENT CHECK VALVE SWING TYPE CHECK VALVE 29 .1 Gate Valve For shut down the water supply Stem for execute system maintenance that require suspension of water Wedge supply.2 Check Valve / Non-Return Valve For governing the water supply GATE VALVE flow in single direction that restrict water flowing backward in the system. 3.

System Components 3. There is a floating seat that the valve stem regulates its Floating Seat position to shut down the water supply.3 Loose Jumper Stopcock Serve the integral function of Gate Valve and Non-Return Valve. The floating seat serves the purpose to govern the supply flow to single LOOSE JUMPER STOPCOCK direction as well. 3. 3.4 Y-Type Strainer 1) Body 2) Screen Coarse screening of obstacles 3) Bushing in the water stream protects blockage of water distribution system as well as damage to water pump. Y-TYPE STRAINER 30 .

31 VOLUMETRIC WATER METER .6 Water Meter A flow measuring device records the water consumption. 4) Inner Bellow 5) Wire TWIN SPHERE FLEXIBLE CONNECTOR 3. System Components 3. 3.5 Flexible Connector Allow movement of 1) Flange pipeline especially in 2) Outer Bellow vibration between pump 3) Reinforcing Fabric and pipeline.

8) Pump Frame 9) Base Frame 3.7 Piping Distribute water supply 1) Electric Motor Frame from the source to draw. System Components 3. 5) Bearing Frame Water pressure within Inducer 6) Inducer the system will be built 7) Inlet Inducer up by pump or gravity. 3. 15) Coupling off point at desired level. 2) Pump Head off point at designated Frame location in an enclosed 3) Mechanical Seal 4) Outlet Inducer distribution network.8 Water Pump 10) Bottom Bearing 11) Impeller Pressurize water within 12) Shaft the distribution to cater 13) Intermediate Shaft Sleeve for system friction loss 14) Pressure as well as maintain Resistant Cylinder supply pressure at draw. MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 32 .

Break Tank – To control the pressure zoning of water FIBERGLASS WATER TANK distribution network as well as positive air break to avoid contamination of water main. System Components 3. Storage Tank – Provide buffer to suit the simultaneous water demand as well as certain period of water consumption. 3. 33 .9 Water Tanks Sump Tank – Serves as the positive air break for connection to the pump suction to eliminate the system disturbance caused by the pump.

resonance appeared WATER HAMMER ARRESTOR and cause vibration of piping that cause nuisance.10 Water Hammer Arrestor Pressurized Gas Absorb the pressure wave generated by fluctuation of 1) Cap water demand.11 Pressure Reducing Valve Upstream water pressure is proportionally reduced to desired level at downstream. When 2) Piston frequency of pressure wave 3) Tube 4) O-Ring equals to the natural 5) Solder Cup frequency of distribution pipe. 3. 3. System Components 3. 34 PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE .

FLOAT SWITCH 35 .12 Ball Float Valve To control the ON/OFF of the incoming water supply when predetermine water level of the system is reached BALL FLOAT VALVE 3. System Components 3. This is used to monitor the water level and/or utilized to control the pump operation.13 Float Switch A transducer gives electrically signal when water level in water tank reached predetermine level. 3.

3. System Components 3.14 Pressure Gauge A dial gauge with needle driven by bourdon tube flexes when subjected to pressure thus display the system pressure at the dial.15 Pressure Switch / Sensor A transducer gives electrically signal when water pressure at tap-off point reached predetermine level. This is used to monitor the water PRESSURE GAUGE pressure and/or utilized to control the pump operation. 36 . 3.