You are on page 1of 15


Subject: Public Policy and
Public Administration

Structure of Organization:
Formal and Informal Organizations
Topic 2-
Executives &
Chief Executive In Public Administration
Types and functions of chief executive
Importance of making Organizations
In a organized society, every activity of human has been carrying out
through the rationally coordinated ways(we are born in hospitals,
educated in school, employed by business or governmental firms,
joining in trade union and professional association).
Since the effect of group and coordinated efforts realized by human,
every activity has done by human being with some rational
coordination for the mutual benefits of members and institution.
All the goal-directed activity in the society has been distributed and
assigned to group of human beings or employees with the pre-
conceived plans(to increase the out put or profit or to complete the
mammoth type of works ).
In this way, public administration is also working under organized
group effort and it also requires a specific form of organization set up.
Public Organization started working under organizational structure
and processes with varied goal setting.
Nature or organizing
Identification of activities
Grouping Activities
Assignment for each group
Provision for coordination in org structure
Elements of organization
Line & staff
Functional authority
Span of Control
Organizational Charts
The word Organization derived from organisms which means structure with parts integrated in a
such a way that they govern their relation to each other.

1.Orgnization is the collection of people engaged in a specialized and interdependent activity to

accomplish a pre-conceived goals .Harold-F. Gartner

2. structure is an important means in organization to achieve the organizational goal- Peter


Traditional classification of Organizational structure

I. The Traditional structure of Public Organization can be classified into 4 types
1.formal organization or informal or organic organization 3.Mechanistic
Formal organization Means it is organization working with clear-cut designed structure
with clearly marked lines, established for the purpose of achieving certain common goals
which formulated by organization.
Informal organization or organic structure:described by British theorists Tom Burns
and George Stalker. an organic organization is one that is very flexible and is able to adapt
well to changes. Its structure is identified as having little job specialization, few layers of
management, decentralized decision-making, and not much direct supervision
Org. structure
Mechanistic structures are typified by narrow spans of control; high centralization,
specialization, and formalization; as well as by rigid departmentalization. And the
chain of command, whether long or short, is always clear.
c(also known as flat structures) are typified by wide spans of control;
decentralization; low specialization and formalization; and loose
departmentalization. And the chain of command, whether long or short, can
sometimes be difficult to decipher
Charecteristics of formal structure
-defined structure of activities
-relatively stable
-It Grows further and expands
-structured on the basis of job assigned not according to individuals who are to
-deliberately impersonal ,no room for emotional aspects
-authority and responsibility relationships created by the organization is used to
honored by everybody
-Org. Charts are usually drawn for the purpose of mentioning the organization
positions which occupied by the personnel
Evolution of structural organizations
Organization Developed Through the Ages
Traditional structure of organization had been developed from1. tribal organizations
2.Royal and 3.clergy power structures .4. master-slavery 5.multiple industrial
organization structures
6. today's post-industrial and governmental administrative structures.
1. Pre-bureaucratic ERA,
CHARECTERISTICS of Pre-Bureaucratic structure
In Pre-bureaucratic era (entrepreneurial) structures, it lack standardization of tasks.
-This structure is most common in smaller organizations and is best used to solve simple
-The structure is totally centralized. It was mostly master-slavery relationship
-The leader makes all key decisions and most communication is done by one on one
- it enables the founder to control growth and development.
-They are usually based on traditional domination or charismatic domination in the sense
of Max Weber's tripartite classification of authority.
Post Bureaucratic Era
2. BUREAUCRATIC ERA- INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ERA during industrial revolutions and

traditional aristocratic agencies

A. Establishment of various Organizational structures and line of formal authorities,

B. Those organization s are operated through the well-established formal skeletal structures like

division of works,

c compartmentalization in the organizations like departments, divisions, branches, and wings,

3.POST BUREAUCRATIC ERA- Experimentation era on Human and Material Resources OF


In the 20th and 21st century, organizational theorists such as Elton Mayo, Lim, Griffiths, and in

modern era, the author Sam brook (2010) worked for organizational structure development, they

created work strategies and analysing the behaviour of the management. Through their study They

found that workers logging for the power distribution between them, and influenced by their

organizational environment and the outcome. They also experimented with many ideas such as...
4 a. Experimentation on- Factors influencing organizational


1.Internal and 2.external factors

1.Internal factors-the status of human and material and technological

source and their influence on operational efficiency and organizational

policies which formulated for the development of organization

2.External factors- clients management, supplier-distributer and other

outsourcing agencies which involved in organizational development



1.Functional Structure
Functional structure is set up so that each portion of the organization is grouped according to its purpose.
In this type of organization, for example, there may be a marketing department, a sales department and a
production department. The functional structure works very well for small businesses in which each
department can rely on the talent and knowledge of its workers and support itself.
Divisional structure on a smaller scale, having different offices in different parts of the city, for example, or
assigning different productions to its subdiary companies to handle manufacturing units which function in
different geographic areas.
The third main type of organizational structure, called the matrix structure, is a hybrid of divisional and
functional structure, This type of structure is used by multinational companies
operating in the global environment, for example, International Business Machines
USA. Multinational corporations may have their corporate offices in the country of
origin and their international divisions established in various countries reporting
to the CEO or president at the headquarters. The international divisions or foreign
subsidiaries may be grouped into regions such as North America, Asia, Europe etc.
and again each region may be subdivided into countries within each region..
Types of org. continues
4.Line,staff and auxiliary type of organizations
A single -line organisation has only direct, vertical relationships
between different levels in the firm. Departments directly involved
in accomplishing the primary goal of the organisation. In a line
organisation authority follows the vertical chain of command.
A position intended to provide expertise, advice and support for the
line positions-mostly they are experts-conflicts arisen between line
and staff
5.Divisional organization structure
In this type of structure, the organisation can have different basis on
which departments are formed. They are:
(i) Function,(ii) Product,(iii) Geographic territory,(iv) Project and
(iv) Combination approach.
6.committee or board type of organizations
Committees/Board/juries type of organizations consist of groups of peers who
decide collectively, sometimes by casting votes, on the appropriate courses of
action within the organizations.

7.Project organizational structure

-A project organisation is a temporary organisation designed to achieve
specific results by using teams of specialists from different
functional areas in the organisation.
- The project team focuses all its energies, resources and results on
the assigned project. Once the project has been completed, the
team members from various cross functional departments may go
back to their previous positions or may be assigned to a new project.
- Some of the examples of projects are: research and development
projects, product development, construction of a new plant, housing
complex, shopping complex, bridge etc.
In addition to a multiple command and control structure, a
matrix organization necessitates new support mechanisms,
organizational culture, and behaviour patterns.
Developed at the US National Aeronautics & Space
Administration (NASA) in association with its suppliers, this
structure gets its name from its resemblance to a table (matrix)
where every element is included in a row as well as a column.
- A matrix succeeds when there is a collaborative culture,
where information flows freely, where development of strong
relationships and informal networks are supported, and where
people are encouraged to develop interpersonal skills (e.g.
communication, conflict resolution, teamwork and influencing
without authority.)
Traditional and Hybrid
Informal organization
People in a society try to form a socially integrated groups in which people
act alike in groups with their continuous cooperation
Mostly they evolve their own unwritten laws, beliefs and control(in
traditional groups)d
It forces members to observe some common rules for their group welfare
to which they belong
The leadership in it is also informal
We can find Stratification in the informal groups based on their pre-
conceived goals and interests.
Minimum political influence
Enforces self-discipline in groups
Thinks only the