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Permanent way

The finished or complete track of railway line is commonly known as

a permanent way. It essentially consist of rails, sleepers, ballast.
Gauge - The gauge of the track is define as the clear minimum
perpendicular distance between the inner faces of the two rails.
Following factors affecting the choice of a gauge.
1. Traffic condition.
2. Development of poor areas.
3. Cost of track.
4. Speed of movement.
5. Nature of country.
Types of gauges-
6. Broad gauge: width 1676 to 1524 mm.
7. Standard gauge : width 1435 mm and 1451 mm.
8. Meter gauge : width 1067mm to 1000mm.
9. Narrow gauge : width is 762 to 610 mm.
The cost of one sleeper is 1750/- rs.
The rails are fixed with each other by means of various
rails fastening and they rest on sleeper which are laid
at right angle.
Function of rails:
1. To bear the stresses developed due to heavy vertical
loads lateral and braking forces , the thermal stresses.
2. To transmit the load on the sleepers and consequently
to reduce pressure on ballast.
3. To provide a hard and smooth surface for the passage
of heavy moving loads.
. In rvnl training we have seen that the rails are carried
from bhillai.
weight of rails
The rail is defined by its weight i.e. 45 kg rail , means that
the rail per meter length is 45 kg. 54kg. Rails is also used .
Marking on rails : 52 kg mm H.S.L. vl88 the meaning of this
term is 52 kg/m rail ,made of medium maganese steel ,
manufactured by Hindustan steel limited.
The length of rails in india is 12.80 which we have seen on
Fish plate : purpose- the rails are to be connected at their
ends this is achieved by means of pair of fish plate per rail.
The hole are drilled through the plate and
the web of rails and then the fish bolt and nuts are
provided in these holes. When the nuts and holes are
tighten up the rails are joined together. And continous
track is formed.

Depending upon the position of railway track,sleepers may bed classify

1-longitudnal sleepers.
2- transverse sleepers.
B.G.- 275*25*13* Bearing area per sleeper in cmsq. Is 4645.
M.G.-180*20*11.5 bearing area3096.
N.G.- 150*18*11.5 bearing area 2100.
Sleeper density : the spacing of sleepers is inclined by a formula
(n+x) n is length in m.&x is the no sleepers.
For loop line there are 1440 sleepers in 1 km.
For main line there are 1660 sleepers in 1 km.
sleepers transfer the load of rails on the ballast. It act as a elastic
medium between the rails and ballast . It maintain the gauge on the
track. In our rvnl training sleepers are taken from Bared. Those
were concrete sleepers.
Joints in railway
We have seen some type of joints on railway
track like expansion joint, contraction joint.
Expansion joint- during summer season rails
expand in their size .
And during winter season
Rails get shrinkage in their size this continuous
variation in size may be cause accident .to
avoid this thing we provide expansion joints . In
our site they have provided 65 mm gape
between the two rails as for expansion and
upper surface is filled by some material.
Fouling mark: when a pair of tracks
converges, the fouling marks are are
provided and they represent the ponts
beyond which a wagon of one track will foul
or collide with the wagon of second
track.thus the fouling marks guard against
the possibiity of collision between wagons
.they are placed at right angle to straight
track and to make them predominant they
are whitewashed ,painted.
The letters FM are marked on it.
Before the Fm train has to be stopped. .