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forcing a pump-able product through a small opening
to shape materials in a designed fashion (Heldman and
Hartel, 1997)

Raw materials are feed into the extruder barrel
and screw(s) pushed toward die and cutter

Types of materials can be extruded

Metals (Al, Cu, steel etc)
Plastics (PE, polystyrene, etc)
Levic , J (2010) in Expansion tech. in feed and food processing.
Why extrusion?
Efficient, continues production,
Control thermal changes,
HTST-retaining many heat sensitive food components
Improved characteristics of product
Uniformity of products
Faster time processing- reduce energy consumption

Types of extruder by function

Forming: pasta (traditional) high pressure
Cooking: low shear cooking (precooked pasta) collet
(puffed cereals)
Texturizing: high shear cooking (high protein)

May need additional process

Drying (for ex. Snack to reach <3% moisture)/
toasting/ frying/ before final packaging
Extrusion-cooking tech
The food material - heated to its
melting/plasticizing point
conveyed under high pressure
through a die/ series of dies-
product expands to its shape (with
different physicals and chemical
properties from raw materials)
Belongs to HTST (to up to 200oC, 1-
2 min/ residence time 15-20 sec.)
Physic-chemical changes
Gelatinized: swelling and rupture of starch granule;
Partially hydrolyzed to maltodextrin
(Some of ) Enzyme and protein lose their solubility
Inactivated anti-nutritional factors
Reduced volatile/bitterness compound of soy protein
As lubricant: reduce friction between particles of
mixture, liquid form at >40oC and mix well with other
The presence oil <3% doesnt effect on the properties
of expansion, but >5% decreases rate of expansion
Direct extruded snacks, RTE (ready-to-eat) cereal akes and a
variety of breakfast foods produced from cereal material and
differing in shape, color and taste and easy to handle in terms
of production; . snack pellets half products destined for fried
or hot air expanded snacks, pre- cooked pasta; baby food, pre-
cooked ours, instant concentrates, functional components; pet
food, aqua feed, feed concentrates and calf-milk replacers; .
texturized vegetable protein (mainly from soybeans, though not
always) used in the production of meat analogues; crispbread,
bread crumbs, emulsions and pastes; baro-thermally processed
products for the pharmaceutical, chemical, paper and brewing
industry; confectionery: different kinds of sweets, chewing gum.
5 parts of extruder

1. Preconditioning system (moisture

content of materials 15-30%) for non-
preconditioning materials, water can be
added in form of liquid/vapor during
2. Feeding system
3. The screw
4. The barrel and die (to 110-180oC, p 20-
30 atm)
5. Cutting mechanism
Single screw
Consists of a screw rotating within a cylindrical
Foods ow along the length of barrel through the
channel between screw and barrel
Used for simple cooking & forming process
Varied operation by adjusting the deep of the
ight and screw speed
Deep-ightened screws & low speed- generate
little heat- eq.: pasta presser & forming extruder
Shallow-ightened screws & higher screw speed
higher shear rates, generate high heat- eq. :
puffed snacks and texturized app
Single screw
L/D ratio of barrel is up to 20:1 Schematic diagram of single

Feed Section
Feed materials are collected into extruder
Screw: deep ight to allow rapid and easy filling
Transition section
Decreased-depth screw: to initiate compression and processing of
Raw material begins to undergo cooking
Changes in structure occur (gelatinization of starch, cohesive
material) materials change from solid to viscous uid)
Final section
Screw leads the product to the outlet die
Double Screw
Operation is more complex than the single
Screw type and design can be modified to
give a wide variety of operations
Twin-screw shape : figure 8
Two independent screws can be operated
either counter-rotating (opposite direction)
or co-rotating (same direction). Co-
rotating is more common due to a higher
Schematic diagram of
double screw

High productivity
Good mixing
High screw speed (up to 700 rpm)
Self cleaning machine (the screw effectively force material moves
Sangat eksibel (dpt memproses
bahan: viscous and hard to break),
wide range products: simple corn
snack to protein-based food
Lower energy consumption
Broaden the production assortment