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# ME317 Heat Transfer

Outline
Introductory Remarks

Examples of application

Fundamental concepts

## ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer

Introductory Remarks
Recall Conduction & convection heat transfer
Requires temperature gradient in a media gas, liquid, solid.

## Now consider interaction of an object with its surrounding in

vacuum
At t = 0, Ts > Tsur
What will happen after a finite time ??

Net heat transfer until Ts = Tsur -
equilibrium

## Radiation takes place even in the absence of a material

medium
ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer
Introductory Remarks
Presence of a medium tends to reduce radiation !
All forms of matter at non-zero temperature (T > 0K) emit
Gases emission all over the material. Volumetric Phenomenon
Solids & Liquids Radiations from interior molecules strongly
absorbed by surrounding molecules. Surface Phenomenon
What is the nature of transport ?
Classical theory Electromagnetic waves
Quantum theory Photons
Wave properties frequency , wavelength
xcspeed of light in the medium
2.998 x 108 m/s in vacuum
ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer
Introductory Remarks
Electromagnetic Spectrum

## Violet 0.4m Red 0.7m ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer

Practical Applications

## ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer

Fundamental Concepts
Solid Angle
emitted
n dAn Consider emission from an element
of area dA1

## & azimuthal & zenith angle

dA1 dAn subtends a solid angle d
when viewed from a point in dA1

Plane angle vs. Solid angle
r
r dl
d d
dAn
dl dAn
r r
ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer
Fundamental Concepts
Solid Angle
rd
d dAn
r sin
r sin d
r
d r

dA1 d

dAn
d 2 sin d d
r
2 / 2

d sin d d 2
Hemisphere 0 0
ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer
Fundamental Concepts
Radiation consists of a continuous, non-uniform distribution of
single-wavelength (monochromatic) component
Spectral distribution

## Surface may emit preferentially in certain directions

Directional distribution

## ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer

Fundamental Concepts
f f ( , T , , )
Wavelength Solid angle d
If = f () Gray If = f () Diffuse
surface Temperature

f , f ( , T , , ) Spectral, directional

f , T f , T , , d Spectral, hemispherical

f f ,T d f ,T , , d d
0 0
Total
ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer

## Unit area of emitting Unit solid angle Unit wavelength

surface normal to about interval d

dq
(W/m2 Sr m)
dA1 cos . d . d

Define dq = dq / d
& dq = dq/ dA1

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