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ME317 Heat Transfer

Radiation Heat Transfer


Outline
Introductory Remarks

Examples of application

Fundamental concepts

Radiation intensity

Ideal condition Blackbody radiation

Surface emission Properties & Relations

View Factor- Concepts and calculation methods

Radiation exchange between surfaces, enclosures

ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer


Introductory Remarks
Recall Conduction & convection heat transfer
Requires temperature gradient in a media gas, liquid, solid.

Now consider interaction of an object with its surrounding in


vacuum
At t = 0, Ts > Tsur
What will happen after a finite time ??

Radiation from the object


Radiation from the surrounding
Net heat transfer until Ts = Tsur -
equilibrium

Radiation takes place even in the absence of a material


medium
ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer
Introductory Remarks
Presence of a medium tends to reduce radiation !
All forms of matter at non-zero temperature (T > 0K) emit
radiations
Gases emission all over the material. Volumetric Phenomenon
Solids & Liquids Radiations from interior molecules strongly
absorbed by surrounding molecules. Surface Phenomenon
What is the nature of transport ?
Classical theory Electromagnetic waves
Quantum theory Photons
Wave properties frequency , wavelength
xcspeed of light in the medium
2.998 x 108 m/s in vacuum
ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer
Introductory Remarks
Electromagnetic Spectrum

Thermal Radiation ~ 0.1 100m

Violet 0.4m Red 0.7m ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer


Practical Applications

ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer


Fundamental Concepts
Solid Angle
emitted
radiation
n dAn Consider emission from an element
of area dA1

& azimuthal & zenith angle


dA1 dAn subtends a solid angle d
when viewed from a point in dA1


Plane angle vs. Solid angle
r
r dl
d d
dAn
dl dAn
d Radian (rad) d 2 Steradian (sr)
r r
ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer
Fundamental Concepts
Solid Angle
rd
d dAn
r sin
r sin d
r
d r

dA1 d

dAn
d 2 sin d d
r
2 / 2

d sin d d 2
Hemisphere 0 0
Steradian (Sr)
ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer
Fundamental Concepts
Radiation distribution
Radiation consists of a continuous, non-uniform distribution of
single-wavelength (monochromatic) component
Spectral distribution

Surface may emit preferentially in certain directions


Directional distribution

ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer


Fundamental Concepts
Any radiation parameter
f f ( , T , , )
Wavelength Solid angle d
If = f () Gray If = f () Diffuse
surface Temperature

f , f ( , T , , ) Spectral, directional

f , T f , T , , d Spectral, hemispherical



f f ,T d f ,T , , d d
0 0
Total
ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer
Radiation Intensity

Spectral intensity of radiation emission I, e () =


Rate of radiant energy emission

Unit area of emitting Unit solid angle Unit wavelength


surface normal to about interval d
direction direction about

dq
(W/m2 Sr m)
dA1 cos . d . d

Define dq = dq / d
& dq = dq/ dA1

dq I , e , , cos d I , e , , cos sin d d


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ME3170: Chapter - Radiation Heat Transfer